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Zubi 2010

Created By: Sarah Butler
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http://www.starfish.ch/reef/echinoderms.html(Echinodermata) 

There are 5 related classes in the phylum Echinodermata (the Latin name means "spiny-skinned"). For a detailed list with all classifications click here:

Sea star or starfish (Asteroidea)
Brittle stars, basket stars, serpent stars (Ophiuroidea)
Sea urchins, heart urchins and sanddollars (Echinoidea)
Holothurians or sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea)
Feather stars and sea lilies (Crinoidea).
Characteristics of Echinoderms
Echinoderms are characterized by radial symmetry, several arms (5 or more, mostly grouped 2 left - 1 middle - 2 right) radiating from a central body (= pentamerous). The body actually consists of five equal segments, each containing a duplicate set of various internal organs. They have no heart, brain, nor eyes, but some brittle stars seem to have light sensitive parts on their arms. Their mouth is situated on the underside and their anus on top (except feather stars, sea cucumbers and some urchins).

Echinoderms have tentacle-like structures called tube feet with suction pads situated at their extremities. These tube feet are hydraulically controlled by a remarkable vascular system. This system supplies water through canals of small muscular tubes to the tube feet (= ambulacral feet). As the tube feet press against a moving object, water is withdrawn from them, resulting in a suction effect. When water returns to the canals, suction is released. The resulting locomotion is generally very slow.

Ecology and range of Echinoderms
Echinoderms are exclusively marine. They occur in various habitats from the intertidal zone down to the bottom of the deep sea trenches and from sand to rubble to coral reefs and in cold and tropical seas.

Behavior of Echinoderms
Some echinoderms are carnivorous (for example starfish) others are detritus foragers (for example some sea cucumbers) or planktonic feeders (for example basket stars).

Reproduction is carried out by the release of sperm and eggs into the water. Most species produce pelagic (= free floating) planktonic larvae which feed on plankton. These larvae are bilaterally symmetrical, unlike their parents (illustration of a larvae of a sea star below). When they settle to the bottom they change to the typical echinoderm features.



Echinoderms can regenerate missing limbs, arms, spines - even intestines (for example sea cucumbers). Some brittle stars and sea stars can reproduce asexually by breaking a ray or arm or by deliberately splitting the body in half. Each half then becomes a whole new animal.

Echinoderms are protected through their spiny skins and spines. But they are still preyed upon by shells (like the triton shell), some fish (like the trigger fish), crabs and shrimps and by other echinoderms like starfish which are carnivorous. Many echinoderms only show themselves at night (= nocturnal), therefore reducing the threat from the day time predators.

[6] Echinoderms serve as hosts to a large variety of symbiotic organisms including shrimps, crabs, worms, snails and even fishes.



Sea stars (starfish)
(Asteroidea)

Characteristics of sea stars (or starfish)
Sea stars are characterized by radial symmetry, several arms (5 or multiplied by 5) radiating from a central body. Mouth and anus are close together on the underside, the anus is at the center of the disc together with the water intake (madreporite). The upper surface is often very colorful. Minute pincer-like structures called pedicellaria are present. These structures ensure that the surface of the arms stay free from algae. The underside is often a lighter color.

There are a few starfish that have 6 or 7 arms, for example Echinaster luzonicus or Protoreaster, some even more like the elven-armed sea star (Coscinasterias calamaria). Others normally have 5 arms but now have more arms, because after an injury an arm divided and grew into two arms.

Ecology and range or sea stars
The starfish lives everywhere in the coral reef and on sand or rocks.

Behavior of sea stars
Regeneration
The ability of an organism to grow a body part that has been lost

Autotomy
The spontaneous self amputation of an appendage when the organism is injured or under attack. The autotomized part is usually regenerated.

Budding
Is asexual reproduction in which an outgrowth on the parent organism breaks off to form a new individual

Fission
Self-division into two parts, each of which then becomes a separate and independent organisms (asexual reproduction)



The majority of sea stars are carnivorous and feed on sponges, bryozoans, ascidians and molluscs. Other starfishes are detritus feeders (detritus = organically enriched film that covers rocks) or scavengers. Some starfish are specialized feeders, for example the crown-of-thorns that feeds on life coral polyps.

Starfish have no hard mouth parts to help them capture prey. The stomach is extruded over the prey, thus surrounding the soft parts with the digestive organs. Digestive juices are secreted and the tissue of the prey liquefied. The digested food mass, together with the stomach is then sucked back in. This method can be observed, if you turn around a starfish, that sits on prey or sand - you will see the stomach retreating.

Starfish are well known for their powers of regeneration. A complete new animal can grow from a small fragment such as a arm. In some species (Linckia multifora and Echinaster luzonicus) one of the arms will virtually pull itself away, regenerates and forms a new animal. Autotomy (self amputation) usually is a protective function, losing the body part to escape a predator rather than being eaten. But here it serves as a form of asexual reproduction. In other species of sea stars (Allostichaster polyplax and Coscinasterias calamaria) the body is broken into unequal parts (= fission) then the missing limbs regenerate. 

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