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Peer Edit of Alyssa's Report

Created By: Maddy Kim
Just over one percent of the population suffers suffer from a very serious neurological disorder known as "Paranoid Schizophrenia". Schizophrenia is a syndrome caused by a combination of genetically obtained traits, environmental factors, and a disorganized breakdown of thought processes. People diagnosed with Schizophrenia usually experience auditory as well as visual hallucinations, and often have trouble distinguishing what's real and imaginary. 

Findings 1 (History and Understanding)
Schizophrenia has always been hard for people to understand. Even though the first official record of "Schizophrenia" by name was written less than 100 years ago, a description that matched the disorder was made in 1887, classified as a "discrete mental illness", and the same symptoms were described as far back as ancient Egypt, in the "Book of Hearts". *Clarify what the "Book of Hearts" is.  In Egyptian times, people with Schizophrenia were thought to be possessed by demons, and were locked away or committed to deadly procedures, such as drilling holes in patients heads to release the "evil spirits".[Anonymous 2010 1] Thankfully, we possess a much clearer understanding of this disorder, and treat it much differently. Today, scientists have discovered that Schizophrenia is linked to a variety of rare genetic mutations, and can be inherited from a  first or second-degree relative. Those with a parent or sibling that have Schizophrenia, have a ten percent chance of acquiring this disorder, while those with an identical twin have a forty-five to sixty percent chance of acquiring it.[Anonymous 2009 2] Though there have been links to obtaining this syndrome genetically, it is not caused by the genes themselves, "In fact, recent research has found that people with schizophrenia tend to have higher rates of rare genetic mutations. These genetic differences involve hundreds of different genes and probably disrupt brain development."[Anonymous 2009 1] In addition to genetic causes, environmental factors are also thought to play a role in developing this disorder. "Exposure to viruses or malnutrition before birth, problems during birth, and other not yet known psychosocial factors" [Anonymous 2009 3] may be included in the list of causes. Studies have also indicated that patients with Schizophrenia have slight differences in brain function and structure, such as larger fluid-filled cavities in the center of the brain, and significantly less "grey matter" (parts of the brain that are dormant or in-active) [Anonymous 2010 A 1] After death, scientists also found that the actual  brain tissue was slightly different from those without Schizophrenia, they suggested that these differences in cell tissue most likely occurred before birth. [Anonymous 20094] Theories presented have suggested that in the womb, things may go wrong during brain development, which would account for the brain differences. *If you can, list and describe the "things" that may go wrong during brain development.  It was also presented that the reason why the disorder might not hit until teens into the patient's thirties *Doesn't make sense. , is that the neurological and body stresses from puberty may trigger the defective genes into action.[Harrison 2008 1 2] Another theory suggests that Schizophrenia is caused by an interaction of infectious disease, such as viruses. Not only can viruses can attack parts of the brain and leave others intact, but they can also alter processes in the brain without killing it, and they can even lay dormant for many years, which would explain why the disorder doesn't usually go into action until late teens.[Harrison, 2008 A 1] Interestingly enough, this theory also states that patients who grow up  with cats around are slightly more prone to this disorder.  *Explain why people who grow up with cats are slightly more prone to Schizophrenia. [Harrison, 2008 A2] Many sufficient explanations have surfaced on the disorder, and advances are being made even today. 
*You may want to split this paragraph into two.  One can be on the history and the other can be on the understanding.  There seems to be too much information in one paragraph.

Findings 2 (Effects and Symptoms)
When people are effected with Schizophrenia, they experience a wide variety of symptoms and side effects. Some of these symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, loss of appetite and hygiene, depersonalization, depression, and social withdrawal.[Dryden-Edwards 2009 1] Hallucinations and delusions are of the most common symptoms. Hallucinations are when the patient will see or hear things that appear to be real perceptions to them, and hallucinations are beliefs based on insane or incomplete thoughts. Patients effected with hallucinations will often hear voices that are not actually there, and respond to them. Other times they see things that are not there, such as distorted figures or people. Delusions are a bit trickier; patients effected truly believe things that make no sense based on false or made-up information. They may feel like someone is trying to kill them, or follow them, in some cases they even believe people are trying to read their thoughts. Many Schizophrenics will experience disorganized thoughts or speech patterns, "and may become uninterested in daily activities, such as bathing, grooming, or dressing".[Anonymous 2012 1] In rarer cases, Schizophrenics may become violent and act out in a malicious manner. Patients will also often feel disconnected from their families and friends, and have a harder times experiencing joy or pleasure. *Make into two separate sentences, it was turning into a run-on sentence.  They go into a gloomy state of withdrawal and keep to themselves.[Anonymous 2012 2] They also tend to eat less healthy and have more issues with drugs and smoking, which can also be triggers for Schizophrenic episodes. *Explain what Schizophrenic episodes are.  When the patient experiences social withdrawal, their relationships with their family members becomes drastically affected, and they often become suspicious and hostile towards their loved ones.[Anonymous 2008 A 1] Suicide attempts are much more common in Schizophrenic patients, and they are more likely to take their lives.[Anonymous 2008 A 2] "Schizophrenics will tend to turn to drugs or alcohol to relieve their symptoms and self-medicate. This condition is known as dual diagnosis. Heavy smokers with schizophrenia who turn to smoking for the same purpose will in fact will reducing reduce the ability of their medication to work, as cigarette smoke is known to reduce the effectiveness of such medication"  -[Anonymous 2008 A 3]

Findings 3 (Cures and Current Research)
Today, there is no known cure for Schizophrenia, but very effective treatments, therapies and medication is are available, and new advancements in early-detection and prevention is showing promising results.[Cannon 2013 1] Currently patients are being treated with antipsychotic drugs, which block a certain kind of dopamine receptor. *Explain what a dopamine receptor is.  Blocking this receptor lessens the severity of the patients hallucinations, about seventy percent of people treated with antipsychotics show some improvement while ten to fifteen percent show drastic improvement. However, the side effects include weight gain and motor tension, and around four fifths of patients stop responding to the drugs within the course of treatment.[Cannon 2013 2] Once patients stop taking the medication, they have a seventy percent chance of total psychotic relapse within the next few years, and antipsychotics do not treat functional disabilities and therefore do not help their social of or occupational skills, making social withdrawal a side effect of Schizophrenia that cannot be restored. Although a complete cure does not exist, recovery is possible. Around twenty-five percent of patients recover within the first 10 years and live fairly normal lives or live independently.[Tracy 2012 1] "By utilizing multiple therapies and medication, recovery from schizophrenia is possible."[Tracy 2012 2] Another advancement in treatment options was obtained when scientists started investigating the a neurotransmitter called the glutamate receptor. *Explain what a glutamate recepetor is.  They believe that by changing this receptor, chemical reactions in the brain can be carried out normally.[Chandna 2007 1]. New information was surfaced when they discovered that the current treatment being used (blocking dopamine receptors), caused a number of side effects and was even linked to early onset Parkinson's disease.  *Explain what Parkinson's disease is.  [Chandna 2007 2] The research on the glutamate receptors provides hope for a future early onset cure for Schizophrenia. Another study suggested that taking a fish oil supplement before any symptoms of Schizophrenia may help prevent psychosis. "Researchers tested the efficacy efficiency of taking long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids for the prevention of psychotic disorders. The results show that taking Omega-3 not only reduces the risk psychotic disorders developing further but may also provide a viable strategy of prevention in young children with a predisposition for psychotic states."- [Anonymous 2013 B 1] It was found that Omega-3 fatty acids reduced the number of young adults who developed the disorder when distributed at random to an experimental and control group. [Anonymous 2013 B 2] Some say that medication is not the only way a mental illness should be treated, and fish oil is a better, more natural alternative. Natural or un-natural unnatural supplements are not the only way to recovery; support from family and friends, and an un-hostile environment is also necessary.

Findings 4 (Links to other disorders)
While Schizophrenia is a unique disorder itself, it's now being proven to be linked to a number of other things. The first links found genetically were between a number of other psychiatric disorders, specifically bipolar disorder.  *Describe bipolar disorder.  [Cookson 2009 1] It was also discovered that the genes most closely related to those of Schizophrenia, were the genes linked to the immune system, which would support the connection between viral infection and Schizophrenia, there have even been studies of people being more prone to getting this disorder if their mother had a viral illness while pregnant. [Cookson 2009 2] "One hypothesis says schizophrenia can be seen as a type of auto-immune disease, which develops in people who are genetically susceptible and whose immune system is triggered by infection or other environmental factors."-[Cookson 2009 3] Another link to Schizophrenia is not genetic, but physical. It was found that Schizophrenia was linked to violence. Until the early 1980's, it was believed that Schizophrenics were no more likely to be violent than the general population, but it is now accepted that people with this syndrome are significantly more likely to be violent. [Walsh, 2012 1 2] Drug use (cocaine, nicotine, amphetamines, PCP) was found to be an affecting component of Schizophrenia as well, it was proven to reduce the effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs, as well as worsen their symptoms. It was also found that patients taking drugs are less likely to follow their doctor's treatment plans. [Anonymous 2006 1] While the normal rate of the U.S. smoking population is around twenty-five to thirty percent, the number of Schizophrenic nicotine-dependent people is three times as high, and withdrawal from the drug can temporarily worsen their symptoms. [Anonymous 2006 2 4] Food can also effect Schizophrenia, patients commonly have low levels of omega-3 and B vitamins, certain foods that are rich in these nutrients have been known to help lessen the symptoms of Schizophrenia and nourish the brain.[Anonymous 2013 B] Foods that are suggested to be avoided are fatty or oily foods, lactose, and gluten, because antipsychotics cause the patients to gain weight and obesity should be avoided. It was also proven that ingesting lactose and gluten worsens the symptoms of Schizophrenia and also should be avoided. The diet a Schizophrenic person eats does not really affect them that drastically, but gluten is the most recommended to stay away from. Schizophrenia was found to be linked to more than just mental disorders, it was also found to be related to diabetes. Patients with Schizophrenia actually were found to be more prone to Type 2 diabetes, and have a higher risk of abnormal glucose metabolism.  *Explain what Type-2 Diabetes is.  [Anonymous 2009 C 1]
*You may want to split this paragraph into two.  One can be on the links to other disorders, and the other can be on what to avoid to prevent Schizophrenia.

Conclusion
Therefore Although, Schizophrenia is a disorder without a cure, but it has there is hope. Recovery is possible, we know how it works, and why it causes the things it does, and new advancements are being made constantly. With early detection, medication, and proper environment, we can beat Schizophrenia, and give the mentally ill a reason to recover.

*Wow, your essay was very well-written!  Besides a few clarification and explanations, it was a very good essay!  Good job Alyssa (:
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Peer Edit of Taylor's Report

Created By: Maddy Kim
Have you ever had a horrific pain in your head and it wouldnt wouldn't go away?! *Don't put an exclamation point, it looks informal.  That pain is called a migraine; that it usually effects your daily tasks and activities. There are two types of migraines*Make two different sentences. that They are caused from your surrondings, your hormornal changes, physical activty, but they can be stopped by medical resources. Migraines can come and go, but you should do as much as you can to prevent getting one, because they are not fun and time consuming, in a bad way.  *Fix last sentence, it doesn't flow.
  • What are migraines? A migraine is a painful, and excruciating head ache that will and can last for either several hours or days. (Anonymous c 2009, 1) A migraine is released or started,when large blood vessels combine together while chemicals are being released and an artery is enlarged and is located outside of the skull. is when a migraine is released or started. (Anonymous c 2009, 2) When you get your migraine, your pain is usually directed to one side of your head, but in other cases it can spread to the other side or you can have a whole throbbing head. There isn't just one main migraine that us humans get, There are two different types of migraines that us humans can get. The two different types of migraines are called the Common and Classic migraines. (Nikitina 2013, 1) A common migraine is a headache that will come out of no where and as time goes on it will just get worse and worse. Effects that come with this type of head ache are throwing up, becoming dizzy, having diarrhea, and an increase of having to go to the bathroom, loss of appetite, etc. The rate of this type of migraine is 75% which is more than getting a classic migraine. (Nikitina 2013, 1) Classic migraines are predictable , because they are usually caused when you are in an area that has a bright light or they you are seeing flashes of fast lights. (Nikitina 2013, 3) You will usually know and an hour ahead of time if your you're going to get a migraine because of the symptoms aura is expressing. *Doesn't make sense. (Negating 2013, 2) Aura is visual or sensory disturbances. (Anonymous b 2012, 1) Even though migraines can have an effect of on your body language or working aspect, it will not have a permeant permanent effect for the rest of your life. (Nikitina 2013, 5)
  • Researchers think there are different triggers that create the a persons' migraine. These triggers are the family history, the person's age, the gender, medical conditions and hormonal changes. If a migraine was has happened in the family, it is likely for others around you to pick up on that migraine so it is then passed around. Ages between 15-55 are more likely to receive a headache, and women usually suffer more than men. Because women have menstrual cycles, they usually have a pattern of getting headaches but it changes throughout the time that they are on their period or if they become pregnant. (Anonymous b, 2012 2) Other triggers are also changes like sound, movement, light and smell. (Neighmond 2012, 4) There are also other reasons or theories as to why you can get a migraine; like by drinking more water, having sinus infections, being stressed out , and eating certain foods. ( Anonymous d 2006,1) Sometimes if your you or one of your friends or family members massage your temple, it will reduce the pain in your head. (Anonymous d 2006, 1) If you can avoid chemicals like caffeine, sugar substitute, or flavor enhancer it can reduce your migraine. ( Anonymous d 2006, 2) To get rid of all your stress you can do an activity that is relaxing, like yoga. Stress is also usually a big part of getting a migraine. (Anonymous d 2006, 3) A big part of having all of the natural helpers to get the migraine to go away usually helps, but the biggest one is water. *Doesn't make sense. It rehydrates you because a migraine is usually telling you that you aren't drinking enough water, or in other cases, that you are dehydrated. (Anonymous d 2006, 5).
  • It is known by most researchers that women usually receive more migraines than men do. They usually get all of the symptoms that go with it, rather than men , because they most of the time don't. *Doesn't make sense. The effects are 3 times more to the women than they are to the men. *Doesn't make sense.  (Neighmond 2012, 1) Women's migraines are never the same the each time, they are always changing. (Margaret 2006 , 1) The reason why women get migraine more than men is the because of the hormonal changes ( Mayo 2013, 1). Estrogen and progesterone are what usually trigger for you to have your period or a hormornal change, but these chemicals usually tend to mess with the ones in your brain, causing a migraine. But if the estrogen levels either decrease or lower it will mess with it more and can make the migraines worse, but if the estrogen level is accurate then the migraine may get better. ( Mayo 2013, 2) Right before your period starts, your estrogen will drop, effecting the chances of having migraine, thats why it's common for you to get a migraine before your period and during. (Mayo 2013, 4) A women woman will usually go to the cabinets to grab a pill like IB profin to get rid of the head ache but there are also other ways like applying ice on your head where you have the pain. Or You can also do some relaxing exercises or stretches to release any of your stress. ( Mayo 2013, 5)
  • To try a and prevent your usual migraines before your period you can take preventive medication a couple of days before your period and a couple of weeks after your period has started. (Mayo 2013, 6) Birth control pills also will also help the estrogen so it doesn't release any head aches , but it isn't guaranteed that it will help every single time. (Mayo 2013, 7) Then as both women and men get older, they start to get very bad migraines. But it's more common for the women, which was stated, but this is because they are going through premenopause. This is where its the first year that they are very emotional and their period starts to go away. *Doesn't makes sense. During this year the hormone levels fall and rise several times, causing migraines. ( Mayo 2013, 10) Women can also get migraines because of how much they are on the computer. Studies show that 70% usually have reoccurring symptoms of migraines, daily. (Margret et. al. 2009 , 1)


  • Migraines can also happen when you are exercising especailly when your you're out in the hot sun. The trigger to release a migraine while you are working out isn't known, but extreme, fast work outs isn't aren't heathy. ( Blum 2013, 1) You should never start an intense workout before you "warm up" and after you are done you should " cool down" so you are paced through it, and you are able to catch your heart rate. (Blum 2013, 2) Most people aren't sure what to do to regulate their body while working out. ( Anonymous e 2013, 1) They say that should should "start gradually, then work your way up" just like life. ( Blum 2013, 3). Making sure that you are breathing correctly while working out is very important, because if you aren't breathing right, pressure can build up in your head. (Anonymous e 2013, 2) An example of breathing right would be if you were bench pressing, or lifting a bar. When you are doing a negative motion, as in bringing the bar to your chest, breathe in. Then when you do the positive motion, as in pushing the bar off your chest, you want to breathe out. ( Anonymous e 2013, 3) When your you're exercising and before you exercise it's important to drink plenty of water. Also if you drink a vitamin water or and and/or energy drink while you are working out with prevent a migraine. *Doesn't make sense. ( Blum 2013, 4 ) If you workout everyday you should be drinking at least 64- 128 oz per day. ( Anonymous 3 2013, 4) Taking pills like IB profin could also help prevent your migraine before, during, or after your workout. ( Blum 2013, 5) The trigger to a migraine when outside is usually because of the sun and dehydration. These two are not good when put together. ( Blum 2013, 6) But if your you're inside working out, you do not want to over do yourself, so if you know your body can't handle more, then it's telling you that you need to stop and your you're done. ( Anonymous e 2013, 5).  Even though your head will start to have horrible pain and you feel like you need to stop, exercising can help prevent more migraines down the road, rather than people who do no activity. ( Blum 2013, 7).  But if you get reoccurring head aches, most of the time while you are exercising, that could be a severe problem. You could have a neurological problem or an abnormal blood flow to your brain. *Explain more about neurological problems.  ( Blum 2013, 8)  


    There are several studies on what we can do to cancel out migraines, what do to do to get rid of them in the future, and testing the differences with using different medication. People have several attacks of these horrible migraines, and at least 18% of women and 6% of men get 1 migraine per year at the least. The money spent to help out people with medical migraines was very expensive, almost 19 billion dollars. ( Burton 2009, 1) As time goes on and as you get more and more migraines you end up needing more primary care for their brains. The recent migraines are usually because of the sructural changes in the brain. (Holroyd 2010, 2) They picked random participants that get random migraines, and they were each put to 1 of the 4 treatments. They were either set on preventive treatment, placebo, Behavioural migraine management plus placebo, or Behavioural migraine management plus preventive treatment. Then over a several period of time they would record the amount of migraines/ headaches they got daily. ( Holroyd 2010, 5) The results ended up being that they still had quite a few migraines but they weren't weekly, more like they were monthly and didn't last very long. (Holroyd 2010, 7) As you get older, your migraines can either decrease or increase but it is usually all upon you, unless you have a medical issue. Your stress, hormornal changes and your triggers you can control by several different ways. *Doesn't makes sense.  ( Anonymous a 2013, 1) But to make sure that eventually we won't suffer so much from these migraines and the basic symptoms that we already know, researchers want to keep up the studies and will evaluate in population studies and in clinical trials. Their main goal is to improve these things, without anything too big that could affect or harm anyone. ( Erwin 2010, 1) Melatonin is also found to help your migraines and let you get on with your daily lifestyle. But they still have to do a trial to see if there are any effects with this. (Gagnier 2013, 1) It is also stated that if you were to have a bad dream, it can cause a migraine. ( Greener 2013, 1) When you get an unpleasant dream it can cause stress in your dream, triggering a migraine. Participants of 37 had a record of 10 dreams each, 5 with migraines and 5 without. *Doesn't make sense.  ( Greener 2013, 2) But there was nothing you could do about this . ( Greener 2013, 3)



    In conclusion you can see the many side affects that migraines have. They will butt into your daily acticity activities and also ruin your daily lifestyle, making you grumpy or in a bad moodwhich Then you won't want to be around others. Make sure you keep an eye out for all of these things so you wont have to suffer from a migraine. Also if you do get migraines now, I hope that this information could help you and decrease the rate that you have of getting them. *It sounds informal if you write "I hope that this information..." (it talks about your personal opinion). Scientists are doing their best to get into more detail with how we can all together stop migraines and be able to
*You also need to fix all the spacing and indents for your paragraphs and in between your parentheses for your hyperlinks.
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Peer Edit of Garrett's Report

Created By: Maddy Kim
Introduction

    Before I began this project, when I heard the term "Genetic Engineering" I thought of scientists in laboratories creating new species.  Thoughts of many men and women in an all white laboratory hunched over an object that was being manipulated and created filled my mind.  *Clarify what you meant about the "white laboratory" because it sounded like you were making a comment on the race of the scientists (that's what I thought haha).  However; as I started looking into genetically engineered crops, I realized it was much more than that.  Instead of men in a isolated lab, genetic engineering consists of so much more, specifically when focused on the modification of crops.  Here, it becomes something that can possibly change the world with the new advances today.  The improvements we are making now is opening up completely new opportunities.  Opportunities that, before genetic engineering, were never thought possible.  Now that we have genetic engineering, we have a kind of power that can help millions.  In the world of genetic engineering, the engineering of crops really stands out due to the controversy that surrounds it, the pros and cons of crop modification, the improvements of the genetically engineered crop, and how the newly improved crop assists mankind and benefits the world.

Findings 

    The world's problems regarding crops is are more and more becoming more and more of a present-day and daunting issue.  We are currently producing children so fast that we are reaching a point that is unsustainable - a number that we simply cannot feed anymore.  On top of that, as salt gets in the soil, valuable farmland is lost.  This is the same farmland that grows everyday crops.  This is the same farmland that produces the very staples that are found on every dinner plate around the world, including the wheat used to bake healthy bread for a delicious sandwich to the sugar grown to manufacture mouth-watering candy!  We don't realize how much of our food is actually grown from soil.  In addition, we are not the only species that relies on crops.  The animals that are bred and raised for our own nutrition are fed from crops as well.  A real and significant concern is that as the population is skyrocketing, crop production is dropping to an all-time low.  As rain falls and the water evaporates, it leaves salt in the soil.  With all this salt in the soil, the crops that are planted hit the salt and will not grow. This is because salt dehydrates the plant and the water storage in all of the plant's cells shrivel up and die, ultimately killing the plants.  Genetically engineering crops is a great way to be sustainable in maintaining all of our crop production and in the end to turn our faults in to massive successes! 

    What is genetic engineering?  This is a common question because of the fact that a lot of people are very unfamiliar with the topic of it.  Genetic engineering is the process in which you can take genes from one organism and place them into another organism for various reasons.  Also, undesirable genes can be transferred out and substituted for more desirable genes if wanted.  If change is desired on a large scale, it will take a longer time.  As organisms are genetically engineered , not only does one gene have to be changed but you also have to breed that newly changed species that has been created.  This results in a snowball effect (Anonymous 2013, 1).  For genetically engineered crops however; there is no breeding involved.  So geneticists can now isolate, and manipulate the gene very quickly and accurately.  With a plants' asexual reproduction system, it now copies its genes onto its offspring.  The genetically engineered gene now carries on to the offspring, and so on.  This happens forever, until another change is introduced (Whitman 2000, 2).  Genetically engineering is a revolution in technology. This knowledge changes everything about farming.  Crops can be grown in locations that they were never grown in before and plants can be engineered to even grow out-of-season.  This allows crops to be grown anywhere in the world and whenever they are needed or wanted. With these new innovations, the world has the potential of limitless opportunities for mass producing food.
*I think this paragraph should come before the first one because it introduces genetic engineering.

    In many ways, genetic engineering is a massive controversy of whether or not it benefits mankind. For a very long time, people have argued that genetically engineering crops is bad and can wreck havoc on our lives and environment.  They profess that genetically engineering plants mostly benefits the farmer who is using the genetic modification for his own financial gain (McWilliams and Beachy 2013,1). European environmental organizations and public "get together groups" have been protesting genetically engineered crops. They are unhappy about the genetically engineered corn pollen and its effects on the monarch butterfly. This is one of the many controversial issues being debated today (Whitman 2000, 1). Genetic engineering is considered a "hot" topic that comes with much discussion and disagreement. Differing groups cannot make up their minds on whether or not to start fully putting time and money into new inventions. 
*Go more into depth about the genetically engineered corn pollen and the effects on the monarch butterfly.

    However, even with all the controversy, it seems that they benefits of crop engineering are obvious.  Many believe  that genetically engineering crops should be increased, due to the fact that it is so crucial to feeding the world.  Currently, there is enough food to feed the world, but as the population increases, our farmland decreases, so we need more options (Lathigra 2013,1)  One of the biggest advantages of genetically engineered crops is that the issue of salinity and drought - both major world obstacles to crop production - are addressed.  Increased levels of salinity in the soil, along with years of drought, create huge limitations on agricultural production world wide (Sacamoto 1999,1).  With all the advantages that genetically engineering crops provide, it is no wonder that continued funding and increased engineering is encouraged and supported. 

    Looking at all the things that a genetically engineered crop can provide, it is easy to see why genetically modifying a crop can change it in a good way.  One of the many improved plants is forage crops.  Forage crops "are critical to the livestock industry and sustainable agriculture worldwide."  The forage crops are on a seasonal schedule, so they don't grow all year.  The forage crops only grow during seasons where it is warm.  So with genetic engineering, the geneticists were able to implant the gene for cold growth (Yu-Wang and Brummer 2012,1).  Many crops have been modified simply, such as an increased resistance to pesticide or more nutritional value.  Another changed crop is corn.  Bacillis Thuringienisis is a bacteria that produces small crystals that are only poisonous to insect larvae.  Geneticists have implanted the Bacillis Thuringienisis gene into corn, so insect larvae isn't aren't interested in eating corn anymore.  Now corn is produced even quicker, due to the lack of insect larvae corn consumption (Whitman 2000,2).  These are just some of the ground-breaking ways crops are being adapted to solve problems that relate to the location and season they are grown, but also to the pests and threats they face.  There is a revolution happening in crop engineering and the technology scientists possess has the power to change most  crop growth production problems. *The last sentence doesn't makes sense.

    As mentioned above, some people would like genetically engineering crops to be in continue, while others fight for it to end.  Even with all the benefits, there are negatives as well.  One thing that frustrates farmers specifically is the pesticide resistance in crops.  The pesticide resistance gene has seeped into the ground and gone into the weeds in the farmland, so now farmers are complaining that they have to spray pesticides, such as Roundup, over the weed more than once because of the pesticide resistance in toe weeds (Hart 2013, 1).  This happens in field after field.  It is a problem in the gene flow that causes anything around it to have a similar gene.  The transgenes that come off the genetically engineered plant flow into the soil, and go into other plants around it.  Now this can be very good if growing one specific crop, because then all crops will have the desired gene.  But most farmers grow different crops within the same soil.  This is problematic, as you won't want the same gene in all of the different crops for various reasons (Gray 2013, 1).  There are definite pros and cons to genetically engineering crops.  Many scientists are working diligently to discover ways to keep the benefits and eliminate the problems that come from genetic engineering in order to benefit agriculture today.

    Out of necessity, most people have acknowledged the advantages of genetically engineered crops.  Currently, over half of the world's population are living in countries that have accepted genetically engineered crops.  The overregulation of the genetically engineered food isn't scientific evidence, like most people believe, but it is actually in response to a global campaign that puts aside the fears of these genetically engineered crops (Chassy 2013, 
1).  Currently, the population stands around 9 billion people, and that number is supposed to double in the next 50 years.  With all this growth, the world is starting to realize that genetic engineering is very helpful, and in the hard stretch ahead, it is necessary. The lack of crop growth due to various reasons is starting to become very clear that it is needed and important (Whitman 2000, 3).  The world is accepting the fact that we need genetic engineering to maintain crop production, especially in harsh climates.

    Not only does genetic engineering help us, but it can also improve the quantity of the crop.  Many plants have adapted to their own environment and their genes have changed to better equip them for life.  To improve quantity of the crop, you can take the gene of one plant and put in another.  For example, if there is one plant that only grows in hot, warm environments and another plant that grows in freezing, cold weather, scientists are now able to locate the hot growth gene and transfer that into the cold climate plant.  This results in the unique ability to grow a certain crop anywhere one pleases, all through the use of genetic engineering (Yang 2010,1).  The Bacillis Thuringienisis (the insect larvae killing bacteria) has been used in multiple crops. The Bacillis Thuringienisis creates small crystals on a crop and if an insect larvae eats it, the larvae will die.  This increases the quantity of the crop significantly by eliminating the pest.  Now, all of those eaten or infected crops are going to be clean, uninfected crops that can make money (Whitman 2000, 2).  With genetic engineering, crop production increases on an extreme level in multiple cases.  With all these new improvements, this can cure world hunger issues, allows mankind to produce disease free crops in most any environment and climate.  *Fix last sentence.

    In genetic engineering, there have been some major advances in technology.  The new developments and innovations only increase the success found in this field.  One of the new innovations is found through the genetic engineering of flowers.  For the most part, flowers are not grown to be edible, but rather for enjoyment.  In 2011, the United States spent over $31.1 billion dollars on decorative flowers.  One of the many things the geneticists are changing in flowers is their scent.  Over the last few years, geneticists have been manipulating genetic changes in flowers at the cost of the flowers scent.  Although flowers might now last a little longer or grow a little more quickly, they no longer smell as sweet.  Recently,  geneticists worked to enhance the flowers scent (Breyer 2012, 
1).  In addition, geneticists creating color change in flowers, producing flowers that have colors that are impossible for nature to create.  Blue is one of these colors.  Blue roses cannot be made because of genetic limitations in roses.  But after 20 years of research, Japan created blue roses by genetically inserting a delphinidin-producing gene from a blue pansy into roses.  They were such a hit in Japan, they sold for approximately $30 a blue rose (Breyer 2012, 2).  Another leap in flower engineering has been flowers that are grown with a decreased pollen count.  Sneeze-free blooms, for people with allergies, are being promised.  Researchers from Spain have now found a way to create flowers that don't spread allergens.  They genetically altered the bacteria for a plant disease that now increases the plant's hormones.  Then, they modified another gene that stops the production of pollen.  The researchers grew the new genetically engineered plants (Breyer 2012, 3). These new innovations are just a few examples of genetic engineering in areas other than edible crops. 

Conclusion


    Clearly, genetic engineering has made its own niche in the environment of science.  Although it's a major controversy whether genetic engineering should be applied to a large amount of our crops, it still has made many breakthroughs.  Looking at genetic engineering, we can clearly see all the ways that it can benefit us.  From the new increased quantity of the crop to the increased ability to grow crops anywhere, the options are almost limitless for what we can do with this new power.  But with a power as great as this, there are some disadvantages, which is the cause of an extensive controversy.  A lot of people have finally come to the conclusion that we need genetic engineering.  If we don't use it, then the results will be far worse than if we do.  With this logic in mind, the new innovations in genetically engineering crops are giant steps forward from the technology we previously had.  

Your report is really good besides a couple of sentences that don't really make sense.  But overall, it's very well-written! (:
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