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Jack's Peer Edit (Kris)

Created By: Kristopher Hernandez
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The fascinating control center of the body, the mysterious 2.75 Lb organ that keeps on amazing us,the brain[Noah william 20013{1}].This article will describe the things you might not have known about your brain, i will also talk about the parts of your brain.There are many parts of the brain from the frontal lobe to the brain stem[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D{7}].Shrinking down to microscopic size the brain is composed of 100 billion of cells and the cells make neurons. Like electrical wiring neurons are scaterd across and in the brain[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D 2013{6}]. Not forgetting fun facts like memory and how its measured[[Dave Touretzky and Christopher Cherniak{1}]. The different individual parts of the brain controll there own set of emotions,actions and common sense. Last but not least what can happen to the brain when it gets injured, like simple white matter damage can cause less hours of sleep and even cause a comma[BM Evans 2013{1}].From fun facts to parts of the brain and types of injuries.

Many people think of the brain and the mind as the same thing but in reality they are very different, the brain is a physical organ and the mind is attached to your soul like your subconscious[Joseph Conrad 2004{1}]. Discussing the brain there are four main parts[,] the brain stem,cerebrum,cerebellum and the diencephalons[Joseph Conrad 2004{3}]. Back to the mind, the mind is like a psychic version of the brain in its own way. The mind is part of the human soul and influences your brain and actions again like subconscious[Joseph Conrad 2004 {2}]. Being done with the mind i will focus on the more important [part of the] brain.

The brain consists of many functions, first of is the things people do without realizing it like breathing,blinking ,digesting foods,heart rate and so much more[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{1}].The brain is made up of 100 billion nerve cells, the nerve cells make up nerves and the nerve sends out electrical signals to you brain telling you what the body feels[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{2}].The neurons that carry feelings are involved with the nervous system is the brain and the spinal chord[Noah william 2013{2}].Neurons are made up of axons witch is the longest part of the neuron,the cell body is the head of the neuron and has all the components of a normal cell, the neuron will fail and die if the cell body dies.[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{3}].Last but not least are the nerve endings that look like roots to a tree, they are dendrites. Dendrites are located at the end of cell bodies and at the end of axons[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{3}].

The brain is only about 2.75 the command center of the body, the coloration of the brain is a light pink.The brains armor or skull is made up of 28 bones, 8 of witch are interlocking plates that make up the cranium[Noah william 2013{1,3}].That much is obvious but the are many habits your brain and mind has that you may not notice.Like a computer the brain has three types of memory one long term, long term memory is like a very large hard drive. Short term memory[,] this memory type is like a small RAM that can hold up to nine items 7 average. Finally there is sensory memory[,] this is the memory that you use too recognize things you have seen before[Dave Touretzky and Christopher Cherniak{1}].Another thing you brain is capable of is that the access of long term memory can't be accessed during sleep. When waking up from sleep you might not remember your dreams because the long term memory bank is closed, if your lucky[,] some dreams or parts of dreams are stored into the short term memory[Dave Touretzky and Christopher Cherniak{5}].

The first hominidae intelligence existed about 5 million years ago, hominidae means the ancestor of a modern day man[Jean-Pierre Changeux and Jean Chavaillon 1996{1}]. During this time the weight of the brain was different in many cultures and races even animals brains were weighted and scaled, but the weight of the brain does not measure how much intelligence someone has[Jean-Pierre Changeux and Jean Chavaillon 1996{2,3}].Going back to brain activities or in-activities while you are sleeping injuries can be a big problem. Lower levels of damage to the white mater, cerebral cortex can make it impossible to access the short term memory or RAM(RAM is like the small disc drive in a computer) in the brain when sleeping[BM evans 2013{2}].A high level of damage can be critical to the lower mid-brain,by forgetting how to breath muscle spasms rapid eye movement and finally forgetting how to breath. In brain stem failure you could possibly become a vegetable where there is no state of sleeping or waking[BM evans{8}].

There are different parts of the brain one of witch is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the biggest part of the brain this part of the brain is also known as the cortex{Anne Kinse 2000{4}].There are many parts that make up the cortex or the cerebrum the parts are the frontal lobe,temporal lobe,occipital lobe and the parietal lobe. Each of these lobe has a different function for example the frontal lobe deals with movement problem solving and the etiquette of life. Next is the temporal lobe,this lobe controls vision, recognition,stimuli dealing with sound for example remembering sounds,speech and memory.The occipital lobe makes vision work. Last but not least is the parietal lobe recognition coordinating the body and visual stimuli[Anne Kinse 2000{5}].There are more parts to the brain besides the cerebrum there are the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Hypothalamus is the pat of the brain that lies right above the brain stem.The hypothalamus is like are conscious telling us what we want like food and sex,it also warns us when there is danger around.[Noah william 2013{8}].The pituitary gland produces different hormones depending what gender you are,then the hormone circulate within the body[Noah william 20013{9}].

Another part or section of the brain is the brain stem this is located underneath the brain. The brain stem tells us what to do like when to breath ,how to regulate the blood pressure in the body,heart beat or pulse and any other basic functions of life.Many people say this is the most basic form of the brain because when looking into other animals or reptiles their entire brain is just the brain stem.[Anne Kinse 2000{10}].There are two sides to the brain the left and the right hemispheres, many would think the both sides are the same but study supports that is wrong.The right hemisphere is for art and creativeness while the left hemisphere is all about logic reason and book smarts,Even though there are two halve of the brain there is one part that is no split by the equator, this is the corpus callosum, this art of the brain is just a bunch of axons connecting the to hemispheres together.[Anne Kinse 2000{7}]

Like there is a left and right brain there is also a upper middle and a lower brain,the lover brain consists of the brain stem,diencephalon,cerrebelum also the the cortex. Each of thees parts have a very different an specific function to them for without these functions we would not be able to live, or we would have to remember to breath pump our heart and much more[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{12}].Onto the medulla or my teacher favorite cave man word, the medulla contains nuclei like every other part of the brain. The medulla also helps us with functions needed to live it also sends information regarding what sensory organs receive[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{13}].

The middle brain still like other parts and sections of the brain contains nuclei for movement. The parts to the middle brain consist of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum also the basal ganglia.Nuclei are used for in the middle brain to link motor skills together so people are not clumsy.Eye movement and auditory functions are also under the control of the middle brain. Another part of the middle brain is called the substantia nigra,this involves basic movement when this is damaged or dysfunctional its like having the effects of Parkinson's disease[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{13}].

Pons. What are they, pons are the link that carry information between the cerebrum and the cortex. Pons are little things but they are a big deal[,] it allows us to enjoy our food by tasting it,let us recharge to tackle tomorrows work letting us sleep and carry on with our day without dying by making breathing possible.The list of brain parts goes on so here is the thalamus, this part of the brain tells it when what goes where. For example say you step on a Lego your brains says ouch that hurt my foot. It does this by using the spinal cord as an extension of the brain stem, like a buss stop. The person uses the buss to get to its respective place in the city. Our body being the city and the feeling being the person[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{13}].

There are a lot of sections and parts of the brain there is one main part that are important and you should try to remember for later reference, the cerebrum witch is the biggest out of one part and is located in the front of the brain.The cerebrum operates the memory bank the motion system and thoughts that you think about[Noah william 2013{4,5}].The outside of the cerebrum is know as the cortex, the cortex is mainly composed of grey matter. Grey matter is in simplicity cell bodies and neurons. The cerebrum is basically the work center or office of the body, this means the cerebrum is where a lot of work process get done. The cerebrum is like that shirt you threw in someplace and forgot it, but when you find it its wrinkled beyond belief that is the cerebrum. That crumpled wrinkled-ness gives it extra surface area to work with[Noah william 2013{6}].Unlike the cortex that is made up of grey matter the cerebrum inside it is made up of white matter.White matter is only composed of nerve fibers.Far deep in the middle of you brain is the border between your left and your right brain, keeping the other side in touch of whats happening on the other side. without this part of the brain life without this part of your brain would be absolutly chaoticx[Noah william 2013{6}].

The wonders of the brain is as infinite as space as there is so much more to learn about the brain. Learning that you can never judge a brain by its weight. So i bid my farewell hoping you grained knowledge of what you did not know about the brain,and drank you fill of information from the cup of knowledge from this 2.75 pound organ. Hopefully what you read was not stored in your small ram drive and will be remembered for some thing you might need to remember this for. 
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