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Jonathan's Research Paper

Created By: Alberto Lopez
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Capitalize words and define some words that you used
2nd Semester Research Report

Plants do amazing things. They can produce their own food by a process called photosynthesis, and are even able to grow up to 380 feet, but have you ever thought they would be able to power your television remote, electric toothbrush, or even fuel your car battery? latest discoveries in the madder plant (Rubia species), have shown purpuin which is much more environmentally friendly than the traditional ion battery, and can also perform better. I personally believe that batteries made from madder plant are more environmental friendly, as well as having a higher performance compared to the lithium ion battery. the madder plant has shown that the normal lithium battery is obsolete and performed better by storing more power and lasting longer. 

The first lithium ion batteries to appear in stores came in 1991 (Brodd 2012, 1). The use of the intercalated car- bon/graphite anode(define) took away the problems of the lithium metals ability to recharge because of the formation of dendrites and mossy lithium metal deposits with only a fairly small voltage penalty (brodd 2012, 2). Both the anode and cathode are lithium intercalation compounds(define) turned into polymer-bonded electrode structures based on polyvinylidene difluoride(define). The polymer allows the structure to have space and also takes account for the volume changes that occur in the active materials during both, charge and discharge (brodd 2012, 3). the battery cell operates by intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions into the anode and cathode, being dependent on whether the cell is being charged or discharged (brodd 2012, 4). This has been called to by many battery-making industries as a "swing", "rocking chair", or "lithium-ion" concept of cell operation (brodd 2012, 5). There is no lithium metal in the cell,contrary to popular belief, only lithium ions. The electrolyte is a mixture of alkyl carbonate solvents with lithium hexafluophosphate salt to provide conductivity for the battery cell(define) (brodd 2012, 5). The market for Li-Ion cells is driven by the demand of the portable electronic device market, especially the portable computer device, also known as the laptop. Another product that drives the demand of the lithium ion battery up is the cellular telephone, also known as the cell phone.This market has had explosive growth in these products (brodd 2012, 6). The growth in demand for higher performance battery systems has risen quite rapidly over the past years, and this shows the increase in capacity since the initial commercial introduction in for the cylindrical 18650 cells(define). This remarkable increase in volume has been brought to the light through engineering improvements in the manufacturing processes as well as the introduction of new separator, cathode, and anode materials (brodd 2012, 7). There has been an intense effort to develop new materials. The original lithium cobalt oxide(define) has been changed by mixing in certain additives to stabilize the crystal structure and increase the capacity of the battery cell (brodd 2012, 8). while innovations in the lithium ion battery continue to advance, so does the mining of certain rare minerals. the amount of materials becoming obtained can be potentially dangerous to the environment; therefore, need new and improved batteries to power our new technologies, and to stop and take into consideration if we can keep grieving these materials from the earth. 

Early attempts on lithium ion batteries built from organic cathode materials (polyaniline), met with limited success due to numerous drawbacks such as temperature stability, limited rate capability (low power density), as well as low specific and volumetric energy density problems (reedy 2012, 1). Recently, Tarascon and co-workers came up with an innovative step towards the development of organic electrode materials through what they call "an elegant process"Their recent work on conjugated dicarboxylate anodes and lithium salt of tetrahydroxybenzoquinone(define) suggested a possible alternative to current inorganic based electrodes, which are extremely hazardous to the environment. Recent studies on bio-based materials show and demonstrate the prudent use of biomass for value-added chemicals and products in a bio refinery concept (reedy 2012, 2). organic electrode material for lithium ion batteries, also called purpurin, has been taken and extracted from a common plant called Madder, most often used as a dye for fabrics. The extracted and chemically lithiated purpurin, shows extremely well reversible lithium ion storage properties; therefore, it could lead to the development of a green, environmentally friendly and sustainable, Li ion battery (reedy 2012, 3).
Now this is where it gets scientific. To realize the reversible electrochemical performance of this novel electrode material, a working electrode was prepared by mixing 80% of purpurin/CLP and 20% of carbon by weight.  Figure 1 (a)(delete) shows the cyclic voltammogram(define) of the purpurin electrode conducted at scan rate of 0.1 mVs−1 in 1 M solution of LiPF6 in 1:1 (v/v) The mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)(define) as an electrolyte against Li metal and is a counter and reference electrode. The cyclic voltammogram measurement of the purpurin electrodes showed reversible lithiation/de-lithiation process in the purpurin molecule. The first cathodic(define) scan showed a peak around. As it can be observed from the cathodic scan of the cyclic voltammogram the lithiation process begins at 2.4 and becomes quite large at ~2.0. The firstanodic(define) scan has shown two small peaks around ~2.6 and 3.2, respectively, associated with the de-lithiation process of purpurin. In the following scans of the cyclic voltammogram, the peaks of the cathodic scan shifts to the right by ~0.2, hence reducing the hysteresis(define)between the anodic and cathodic peaks. This leads to better reversibility of the electrode around ~2.0 (reedy 2012, 4).

There is scientific proof that the lithium ion battery produced by the Madder plant is environmentally friendly . environmental(again) requirements regarding the mobility of energy usage are forcing most automakers to develop hybrid electric vehicles, which allows for a more efficient and thus, less polluting use of fossil fuel combustibles (electrochem 2010, 1). Purpurin, extracted from madder root, center, is chemically lithiated for use as an organic cathode in batteries (milo 2013, 1). even if it has been proven that these batteries are more sustainable to the environment, the concentration of these batteries aren't that large. "Green batteries are the need of the hour, yet this topic hasn't really been addressed properly," Reddy said. "This is an area that needs immediate attention and sustained thrust, but you cannot discover sustainable technology overnight." He says the focus of the research community is currently still primarily on improving the features of conventional batteries. Issues such as sustainability and recyclability tend to get sidelined (milo 2013, 2)."Though lithium-ion batteries are the standard," Reddy said, "rechargeable units cost a lot to produce.They're not environmentally friendly. They use cathodes of lithium cobalt oxide, which are very expensive. You have to mine the cobalt metal and manufacture the cathodes in a high-temperature environment (milo 2013, 3). And then, recycling is a big issue," he said. "In 2010, almost 10 billion lithium-ion batteries had to be recycled, which uses a lot of energy. Extracting cobalt from the batteries is an expensive process. Eliminating cobalt would mean eliminating a hazardous material, allow batteries to be produced at room temperature, and greatly reduce the cost of recycling" (milo 2013, 4).  Moreover, growing Madder, or other biomass crops to make batteries would soak up carbon dioxide and eliminate the disposal problem -- without its toxic components, a lithium-ion battery could be thrown away (reddy 2011, 3). Best of all, purpurin also turns out to be a no-fuss ingredient. "In the literature there are one or two other natural organic molecules in development for batteries" (reddy 2011, 4).

there is also reason to believe that obtaining these batteries in the future will be better for you, the consumer. first, the consumer can save money by using rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) batteries (cooper 2012, 1). eventually, alkaline batteries can be replaced with higher capacity, environmentally friendly, rechargeable NiMH or Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries (cooper 2012, 2). What's more, rechargeable batteries are usually much less expensive to use - if you know the right ones to buy and the best way to use them to get the most out of your purchase. Too many people just buy batteries arbitrarily (define) and then have a bad experience and just go back to, single use, throw away batteries (cooper 2012, 3). the battery can be made by just a few easy steps: dissolve the purpurin in an alcohol solvent and add lithium salt. When the salt's lithium ion binds with purpurin the solution turns from reddish yellow color to pink. The chemistry is quite simple (reddy 2011, 5). (don't use the words "you" or "I")

The future outlook of the Madder battery also looks quite good for the consumer, as well as for the environment. The team estimates that a commercial green Li-ion battery may be only a few years away, counting the time needed to ramp up purpurin's efficiency or hunt down and synthesize similar molecules. We can say it is definitely going to happen, and sometime soon, because in this case we are fully aware of the mechanism (reedy 2011, 6). The goal, according to lead author, Arava Leela Mohana Reddy, a research scientist in the Rice lab of materials, is to create environme ntally friendly batteries that solve many of the problems with lithium-ion batteries in use today (williams 2012, 2). 

Also, there is scientific proof that the Madder plant version of the lithium battery can actually outperform the ion battery. Li4Ti5O12, which is a high performance anode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries (electrochem 2012, 1). Crystalline nanoparticles(define) are obtained in a single step and in less than one minute, by mixing the reactants with superheated water in a continuous flow reactor at near- and supercritical conditions (electrochem 2012, 2). overall, the annealed(define) nanoparticles have excellent electrochemical properties (electrochem 2012, 3). further optimization of this rapid, green and scalable synthesis approach is suggested (electrochem 2012, 4).

All in all, I personally believe that batteries made from the madder plant are more environmentally friendly, as well as a higher performer compared to the lithium ion battery. the madder plant has shown that the normal lithium battery is obsolete. it shows this by being more environmentally friendly, as well as performing better by storing more power and lasting longer. the madder battery is soon to be within the consumers grasps. as technology and research in the madder plant continue to advance, so does the day the consumer sees one hundred percent organic batteries in all local stores. if more people in the world start seriously considering organic batteries to power their everyday things, research will continue, and eventually replace the lithium ion battery. can you imagine using your cell phone, computer, clock, flashlight, cd player, and even your car running off of something that grew in the floor? this can become a reality if we, as a human race, join together and start considering the madder plant for our batteries. all we need is YOUR support! 
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