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Jessica's Research Paper

Created By: Alberto Lopez
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Good report only a few errors

Even though some may say there is no race more prevalent in others in hypertension, also know as high blood pressure, 
or has more people with a high blood pressure, people of an African descent, or blacks, are more prone to having these conditions. Hypertension is the result of high blood pressure. Hypertension is a disease that varies and anyone could have it regardless off your race, age, gender, or heredity. 
Findings 

Hypertension, also know as high blood pressure, is when the blood pressure in your arteries is at a higher level than what would be called normal. Hypertension is know to be subtle, gradual disease. Most people never develop problems from the high blood pressure its self, unless internal organs are damaged by the constant high pressure. (revise) (Fogoros 2011,2). 

Since hypertension is capable of producing so many medical conditions, its best to diagnose and treat hypertension accurately and carefully (Fogoros 2011,3). 

"Many doctors are ill-prepared to treat high blood pressure in older people," says Dr. Joseph L. Izzo and a expert on hypertension (Jaret 2011,1). 

People are either not being treated enough or being treated to much. A few older people have been given medications that are too critical for their body. On these high doses of medication older people are at risk for fainting and falling (Jaret 2011,2). 

Blood pressure changes when youre sleeping or awake, stress can affect the level and so can eating . Blood pressure changes all the time and doctors have made them selves familiar with the concept. They know of some conditions like the following. White coat hypertension is the tendency for some peoples blood pressure to increase in the doctors office. The opposite can happen, called "masked hypertension" where the blood pressure can read normal in the doctors office and increase as soon as the person gets home (Jaret 2011,5). 

Hypertension is a "silent killer." It can be slowy killing your body for years before actual symptoms develop. 

An effect of hypertension is having damage to your arteries. If your have high blood pressure, the raised pressure of blood flowing through your arteries can lead to artery narrowing. Fats from the foods you eat flow through your bloodstream and gradually collect and "harden" your arteries.This can block flow to to your heart, kidneys, brain, arms, and legs (Anonymous 2011,3). 

Uncontrolled high blood pressure damages your heart by leading to coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease affects arteries by not letting blood freely flow to the heart. Because of this you can go through chest pains or have a heart attack (Anonymous 2011,4). 

High blood pressure can narrow or from blood clots in the arteries leading to your brain there striping your brain of proper blood flow. When your brain is deprived of the oxygen and nutrients it needs the brain cells die and a stroke occurs (Anonymous 2011,5). 

The human body depends on healthy blood vessels for kidneys to be able to filter blood. High blood pressure injures the vessels leading in and out of your kidneys causing kidney diseases (Anonymous 2011,6). 

Another effect that high blood pressure can have on your body is increasing the amount urine found in your urine(revise)A decrease in bone density is possible of leading to broken bones (Anonymous 2011,7). (elaborate)

So in all, problems that can develop because of high blood pressure is stroke, damage to your aorta, seizures, unstable chest pain, heart attacks, and sudden loss of kidney failure. Adding to high blood pressures effects on your brain, is that there could be memory loss, personality changes, trouble concentrating, irritability, and maintaining loss of consciousness (Anonymous 2011,8) 

Factors that you cant control that contribute to developing high blood pressure are age, race, heredity, and gender. As a person gets older this will result in "hardening of the arteries" which most likely contributes to the developing of high pressure. With race being another factor of this condition an example is "African Americans develop high blood pressure more often than Caucasians. They develop high blood pressure at a younger age and develop more severe complications sooner in life" and this statement is also proof for the fact that there are ethnic differences in hypertension.The tendency to have high blood pressure also runs in families.(why?) And generally men have a greater chance of having this condition but varies in age and different ethnic groups (Wendro 2013,1)." 

Factors you can control that contribute to developing high blood pressure are obesity, sodium sensitivity, alcohol use, birth control, lack of exercise and medications. As body weight increases the blood pressure rises as the heart has to work more. Some people are very sensitive to sodium and their blood pressure rises if they ingest it (salt/sodium). Reducing sodium intake usually lowers their blood pressure(explain). Learn how to read food labels and check out the salt content in products to reduce the amount of salt intake. Those who are sensitive to alcohol may have their blood pressure raised if they drink more than one or two drinks per day. Birth control pills may raise a woman's blood pressure.(explain) A lazy lifestyle adds to the development of obesity which leads to high blood pressure. Medicines also contain large amounts of sodium, many are over-the-counter. In addition certain drugs like stimulants, diet pills and a few cold and allergy medications tend to raise blood pressure (Wendro 2013,2) 

With treatment and lifestyle changes you can lower your blood pressure and reduce your risk for having any complications. Exercising and watching your diet, or what you eat, are ways to help lower your blood pressure and risk for hypertension. 

In 2002, hypertension was found in one of every three Americans and became a worsening problem because the number increased since the previous report (Anonymous 2005,1). 

Research was continued with the study in 2002 with results of nearly 50 percent of Americans with hypertension were elderly (=65 years of age). Seven out of ten elderly Americans had hypertension. Around 80 percent of people with hypertension were either overweight or obese. "The highest prevalence occurs among blacks: a 46% prevalence rate compared with 29% among Hispanics, 32% in whites, and 33% in other ethnic groups." More black people were found with hypertension than Hispanic, whites and other groups. Age, race and obesity are strong factors in hypertension and high blood pressure in people. (Anonymous 2005,2). 

Hypertension and high blood pressure is found in all races but is more prevalent in certain groups than others.(repeat) 

However, a study done in 2001 in the UK has conflicting problems with the data on ethnic differences in blood pressure and hypertension prevalence. It didnt show that one group was was more prevalent in hypertension like how there are more blacks with hypertension or high blood pressure than any other races. For example it failed to find any significant difference between South Asian and blacks in their blood pressures. And when the blacks' blood pressures were compared with the whites' blood pressures the was no difference either (Lane et al 2001,3).(explain) 

But in more recent studies done in the US there have been obvious differences in the ethnic difference in blood pressure and hypertension prevalence. In each study there was one group that had the highest level of people with high blood pressure and people with hypertension. 

Racial and ethnic differences are seen when cardiovascular disease risk factors and out comes of African American people are compared with European Americans. African Americans had higher mortality rates for most cardiovascular diseases and a younger age (Jones et al 2006,1). 

African Americans with prehypertension develop high blood pressure a year faster than Caucasians reported in Journal of the American Heart Association. African Americans with prehypertension also have 35 percent chance of progressing to high blood pressure than Caucasians. “The fact that African-Americans progress faster to hypertension has a direct link to the higher prevalence of hypertension and its complications, such as stroke and kidney disease, in blacks than whites,” said Dr Selassie (Wagner et al 2011,2). (further explanation)

"According to recent statistics by the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, compared to Caucasians, African Americans have a 1.3-times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, a 1.8-times greater rate of fatal stroke, a 1.5-times greater rate of heart disease death and a 4.2- times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease." In the African American community those with the highest rates were more likely to be middle aged or older (Boyer 2011,2). 

A survey was done in the United States from 1994 to 2004. Mexican Americans and non Hispanic whites were more likely to have normal blood pressure compared to non hispanic blacks. The non Hispanic blacks had higher percentages on people who had hypertension stage 1 and hypertension stage 2 compared to the non Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans (Anonymous 2007,1). 


People with an African descent seem to develop high blood pressure at a younger age and continue to obtain more severe complications in life (Wendro 2013,1). (further explanation)

Another reason why African Americans tend to have a higher blood pressure could also be because of culture and their environment. 

Hypertension is quite heavy on other certain ethnic groups also. For example, compared to Caucasians, people of an African descent have a high risk of stroke and end-stage renal failure but are not common with coronary heart disease whereas South Asians are common in (Lane et al 2001,1). 

"We previously examined the association of patients' race/ethnicity with processes of hypertension care [13]. We found that, among a cohort of hypertension patients with repeatedly elevated blood pressures, Hispanics were significantly less likely to have therapy intensified and were more likely to have uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) than were other racial and ethnic groups. In an effort to identify potential targets for interventions to improve hypertension care among our patients, we further examined which patient and provider characteristics may explain racial differences in rates of therapy intensification (LeRoi et al 2005,2)." Hispanics were compared with other ethnic groups and were found more likely to have uncontrolled blood pressure. 

Conclusion 

In conclusion, there is an ethnic difference in blood pressure and hypertension prevalence. People of an African descent are more prone to developing or having hypertension and high blood pressure. Before people have said that there is not enough evidence to prove that there is ethnic difference because most studies were not done on a very wide range of groups. For example African American and the Caucasian were the ones being compared the most but none of the ones inbetween are being studied but now there is newer research that proves blacks are more prone to hypertension and high blood pressure. I believe that blacks are more prone because of their culture and environment and the fact that this idea has been tested multiple times and turns out correct is proof for me.
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