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Raja, 2004

Created By: Mariela Dagio

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15555695

Suicide attempts: differences between unipolar and bipolar patients and among groups with different lethality risk.

Source

Servizio Psichiatrico di Diagnosi e Cura, Dipartimento di Salute Mentale, Ospedale Santo Spirito, Via Prisciano 26, 00136 Rome, Italy. michele.raja@fastwebnet.it

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The present naturalistic study aimed to distinguish between suicide attempts (SAs) of bipolar and unipolar patients, and among SAs characterized by different lethality risk.

METHODS:

The records of 2395 consecutive admissions to our psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) were assessed for presence of suicide attempt (SA). Cases of SA were rated for symptom severity with the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the scale for the assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS), the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS), the mini mental state examination (MMSE), the global assessment of functioning scale (GAF) and the clinical global impression (CGI). An original questionnaire was administered to explore clinical aspects related with suicidal behavior.

RESULTS:

[1] Among 2395 admissions, 80 (3.3%) had attempted suicide. Fifty-three cases (66.2%) suffered from a mood episode, including 22 (27.5%) with unipolar depression and 31 (38.7%) with bipolar depression (types I and II combined) or mixed state, while 27 (33.8%) cases received other diagnoses. Forty-eight (60%) cases had attempted suicide prior to the index episode. Ten cases (12.5%) had a relative who attempted or committed suicide. Thirty-nine cases (48.7%) described their SA as impulsive. Twenty cases (25.0%) reported alcohol ingestion before SA. In comparison with women, men used more violent methods. Cases characterized by a non-lethal risk SA had higher BPRS psychotic cluster and SAPS scores than cases with either low or high lethal risk SA. Bipolar cases were over-represented in the high lethality risk group. BPRS anxiety-depressive cluster score was higher in unipolar than in bipolar cases.

LIMITATIONS:

The sample may not be representative of all patients with SA. The questionnaire has not been standardized for use in psychiatric populations.

CONCLUSIONS:

The higher proportion of high lethal risk SA in bipolar cases suggests that the risk of completed suicide is higher in bipolar disorder than in unipolar depression. The risk of lethality in SA was not associated with the intensity of symptoms of anxiety and depression.

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Kaitlin's Research Paper

Created By: Mariela Dagio
Leukemia. Most people have heard of it. Maybe a close family member or friend that you know was diagnosed with it. Well what is Leukemia? Too some people it may just be "another form of cancer." However, for people like myself, who have experienced and watch others go through the cancer, I was curious, and had many questions.

Now first off, to give a background on the cancer, Leukemia, it was not officially diagnosed until 1845. John Hughes Benett diagnosed it in Edinburgh originally calling it, "Weisses Blut", or "White Blood." Now, Leukemia comes from the greek words, "leukos" and 'heima." Both of these words also mean "White Blood" (McGlauflin 2005, 1). Leukemia is the cancer of the blood cells and bone marrow. Typically the cancerous tumor begins in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue on the inside of bones that make the blood cells that are placed in to the blood stream (Campbell 2010, 1). If a body is healthy, working properly, and with no cancerous tumor, there are a few things that are supposed to be created in the bone marrow. Some of these include, the white blood cells. These fight off diseases and infections to keep the body healthy. Red blood cells are also made to carry oxygen to all part of the body. Finally, platelets are formed. Platelets clot the blood when needed (Campbell 2010, 2). When the cancerous tumor forms, leukemia cells are made. These are just abnormal white blood cells that grow much faster than normal white blood cells and do not stop growing when they should (Campbell 2010, 3). Over a long period of time, these Leukemia cells can take over and replace the original white blood cells. This can lead to even more problems such as other infections, anemia, and bleeding. Also, there is a possibility for the Leukemia cells to spread to the lymph nodes and major organs causing swelling and pain (Campbell 2010, 4).

Leukemia is must more complex than one might think it is. It comes in quite a few amount of forms and is combined in different ways to get the four main types, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (Chase 2009, 2). If one has an Acute Leukemia, then it means that the cells are multiplying rapidly and there is a possibility that you will be in pain and notice the symptoms right away. If somebody has Chronic Leukemia, then the cells are taking a very long time to multiply and one may not notice these symptoms for years (Campbell 2010, 6). Some of the symptoms that usually appear are fevers, and night sweats, headaches, being bruised or bleeding easily, having a swollen and painful belly from an enlarged spleen, swollen lymph nodes in armpits, neck and groin, being tired and very weak, losing weight and never seeming to be hungry, bone and joint pain, and very prone to infections (Campbell 2010, 8). Then, "Lymphocytic" and " Myelogenous" refers to the blood cell that they are attacking (Chase 2009, 1). Lymphocytic Leukemia attack white blood cells called lymphocytes, while Myelogenous Leukemia attacks the myelocyte white blood cells (Campbell 2010, 6). Along with the four main types, there are a few others. These just are subtypes of the original, Erythroleukemia, Hairy Cell Leukemia, and Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (Campbell 2010, 15).

As for the reasons and causes for Leukemia, scientists have not quite discovered what the main cause is. However, scientific studies and experiments show that some risk factors such as exposure to radiation and chemicals, smoking, having Down Syndrome, and going through chemotherapy for other cancers, can one day lead to Leukemia. On the other hand, people that do have Leukemia, sometimes have never experienced those risk factors, and most people who do have these risk factors, do not ever have Leukemia. So really, even though there are things that you can try to avoid and keep in mind, there is no guarantee to whether or not one will get Leukemia (Campbell 2010, 7). Also, childhood Leukemia has become a lifestyle disease. With families becoming smaller and much more hygienic, young children are not exposed to infections at an early age (McGlauflin 2005, 3). People are also becoming more and more exposed to the Leukemia cells from living in a very developed world. With our world becoming less of what our bodies were built for, and more chemicals floating around in the air daily, the chances of getting Leukemia are going higher and higher every day (McGlauflin 2005, 4).

Back to the types of Leukemia's, there is not only "Leukemia". There will always be a specific type. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia is the number one most common kind found in adults. This type is the Myelocyte White Blood Cell multiplying very quickly. The next most common Leukemia, is the Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. This one affects the Lymphocyte White Blood Cells, however, it takes a long time to progress and grow. There is also the Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, affecting the Myelocyte White Blood Cells in a very slow process. Finally, there is the Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. This is the least common form of this specific cancer, however, it is the form that appears the most in children (Chase 2009, 2).

Finally, we have the cures and treatments. Leukemia is a very difficult disease to cure, because surgery alone can not cure it. Because the Leukemia cells are located in the blood cells, the cancer is located all throughout the body (Chase 2009, 3). When the cancer is an Acute Leukemia, treatment is needed to stop the quick reproduction of the cancerous cells. With the treatment, the Leukemia can go into "Remission." Doctors prefer using the term remission because the cancer is not fully cured and there is a chance that it might come back (Campbell 2010, 9; Chase 2009, 5). Chronic Leukemia, on the other hand, is a rarity when it is cured. The treatment, though, helps with controlling the cancer, but the treatments happen at different times depending on the cancer. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia should be treated instantly, while Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia treatment usually waits until the symptoms are present (Campbell 2010, 10).

Arsenic treatment is historically speaking the first treatment solution for Leukemia. Sometime in the Eighteenth Century, Thomas Fowler made a solution of arsenic trioxide and potassium bicarbonate. This treated anemia, Hodgkin's Disease, and Leukemia. This was the primary treatment used to cure Leukemia up until the early Twentieth Century, when radiation therapy was being used to treat Leukemia and other cancers (McGlauflin 2005, 5).

When radiation therapy was first discovered, Leukemia seemed to be an absolutely incurable disease. When discovered, they realized that X-rays decreased the size of cancerous tumors (McGlauflin 2005, 6). Using the radiation therapy, it would decrease the size of swelled lymph nodes or an enlarged spleen. Radiation therapy is often used before a stem cell transplant. When going through the treatment, the patient lays on a table and the radiation can be pinpointed on one spot on the body, or in Leukemia's case, all over the body (Campbell 2010, 12; Mayo 2012, 4).

Stem cell transplants are used to replace the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow (Mayo 2012, 5). Stem cell transplants also can rebuild the blood cells and boost your immune system. Before the transplant is carried through, a round of either radiation or chemotherapy would be performed to destroy the cancerous cells (Campbell 2010, 13). Stem cells can be from a donor, or if they are healthy enough, from another part of your body (Mayo 2012, 5).

Another treatment that is used for Leukemia is aminopterin. Aminopterin is a compound that is related to folic acid. Folic acid is found in every patient when they go through remission. The aminopterin prevents DNA replication in the cancerous tumor cells (McGlauflin 2005, 8).

Biological therapy is for people who do not want a whole lot of chemicals and radiation used on their bodies. Also, this is used for patients whose cancer has not spread to the entire body,  no comma needed yet. Biological therapy helps to improve one's body's natural defenses to fight off the cancerous cells (Campbell 2010, 14). It also helps the body to recognize and attack the Leukemia cells (Mayo 2012, 2).

Targeted therapy does help with the process to remission, however, it does not eliminate all of the cancer cells. It targets the weaknesses of an individual cell and attacks that. It does not completely cure the cancer but it does help in controlling the disease. Also, it is sometimes used before a major treatment such as radiation therapy chemotherapy (Mayo 2012, 3).

Finally, there is the main type of treatment for Leukemia, chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was discovered after World War II. Chemicals in the Mustard Gas that was made to attack the Germans, was later found out that it broke down white blood cells. They discovered this because a group of soldiers accidently came into contact with the mustard gas and had a sudden decrease in white blood cells (McGlauflin 2005, 7). When going through chemotherapy, it may be given through just a pill, or it would be injected into a vein. It also could be one drug, or a combination, depending on the form of Leukemia that one might have. Chemotherapy, of course has its upsides and downsides to it. The good thing is that by wiping out the diseased blood cells, usually the patient can go into remission. However, with white blood cells being the part of the blood stream that attacks disease, and the chemotherapy eliminating those, it makes it very difficult for one to battle any other diseases that come into the body. When under the chemotherapy treatment, the patient is always under close and extreme care and watch, just because of the body being so prone to infection or disease (Mayo 2012, 1; Campbell 2010, 11).

In the end, it was very clear to myself of what Leukemia is. It is not just another "disease" or "sickness" that you would be lucky to not get. However, there is much more to it than that. It is not only easy to get the cancer in the first place, but it takes a lot of treatment and time for the Leukemia to be "cured." On top of that, usually it is not even cured! If one is lucky and the treatments work, then the Leukemia might go into remission. This is a very complex cancer and people who do not have this, should be very thankful, knowing that their blood and bone marrow is working properly and they do not have to go through any kind of this treatment.
**GREAT paper very few errors, very informative
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Nick's Research Paper

Created By: Mariela Dagio
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in America, which is why it is so important to maintain a healthy diet. Even though some people may believe that unhealthy foods and not exercising daily won't put too big of a negative effect on your body, keeping up bad habits of eating unhealthy and not exercising will not only increase your risk for heart disease, but will do other harmful things to your body. Throughout my report you will read about how to get heart disease, how to reduce your risk for heart disease, certain foods to eat, stress reduction, pulmonary hypertension, and inflammation. Heart disease is a very important topic due to its lethality in America and is also a very interesting topic to learn about.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in america. Sadly, costs associated with heart disease are thought to triple by the year of 2030. However, heart disease does not have to be thought of as an inevitable death sentence, that many people may assume it to be. In fact, there are numerous ways to avoid heart disease such as by avoiding certain foods and eating plenty of certain other ones. Heart disease is usually caused by unhealthy diets or unhealthy lifestyles. Usually when you eat many foods that are high in fat and sugar, you are increasing your risk for heart disease. However, you can lower the risk by easily choosing healthier meals and exercising daily. Also, quitting unnecessary unhealthy habits such as smoking or frequent drinking would lower your risk for heart disease (Anonymous 2012, 1). All of these are extremely important if you are pregnant or are experiencing another lethal disease or intrusion.

People tend to think of heart disease as a scourge ? of modern life brought on by unhealthy diets such as eatings fatty foods, smoking, and being a couch potato. However, CT scans of 137 antique mummies collected from three different countries show that hardened arteries have probably infected mankind for thousand of years including paces like the Aleutian Islands. The vascular blockages, that cause heart attacks and strokes today, were shown in a third of the mummies who had lived in the American Southwest and Alaska as well as Peru and Egypt. Meaning that thousands of years ago, people were experiencing strokes and heart disease due to vascular blockages which is exactly the same for humans today (Brown, Eryn, 1). Obviously, poor sleep leads to a bad day full of drought and misery due to the lack of energy you have throughout the day. However, even though many people in America do not pay attention to how much sleep they get everyday, poor sleeping habits can lead you to getting heart disease. Besides heart disease, poor sleeping habits leads to many different chronic diseases just like smoking or eating an unhealthy diet. Researchers have confirmed over the past five to ten years that insufficient and poor quality sleep increases your risk for obesity, cancer, cognitive decline, and heart disease (John, Phillip, 1). Beginning in the years of adolescence through the teen and young adult years. Two independent research bodies have been released that implicate poor sleep with increased risk of insulin resistance leads to full-blown diabetes as well as higher incidences of heart disease (John, Phillip, 2).

Overtime, there has been many different documented ways that have been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke including vitamin D optimization, fish oil supplementation and potent antioxidants such as resveratrol. Daily chocolate consumption can now be added to the list as a powerful healthy way to reduce your risk for heart disease as researchers have confirmed that eating small amounts of chocolate each day is very benefitial to your health (John, Phillip, 3). Also, not eating processed meat such as bacon, sausages, and salami will help as well. As found by scientists from Harvard, every 1.8 ounces of processed meat that the human consumes per day raises your risk of heart disease by 42%. Also, you should increase the amount of fresh vegetables and omega-3 fats that you eat everyday to help your body. You should also increase your intake of anti-inflammatory foods, such as fresh vegetables and omega-3 fats (Schreiber, James 1). Surprisingly, recent studies show that eating chocolate has a positive impact on your body due to its antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. This includes reducing blood pressure and improving insulin sensitivity (John, Phillip 2012 1). Researchers performing a meta-analysis of all studies examined found a connection between the risk of cardiovascular disease and higher consumptions of chocolate. They determined that higher consumption levels of chocolate can lead to a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease, a 24% reduction on heart disease, and a 29% reduction in stroke. However, the final result did not mention the impact on your body between milk chocolate and dark chocolate. Dark chocolate actually has a better impact on your body then milk chocolate due to the reduction of sugar and the amount of cocoa that is actually in the chocolate 75%(John, Phillip 2).

Proven by ongoing research, an easy way to lower blood pressure, reduce strain on the heart, and increase good HDC cholesterol is by exercising regularly. Usually, exercising can be easy and sometimes effortless. You can improve your health by just walking for a half hour everyday or 3 hours total every week(Schreiber, James 2). Stress is also a huge factor in life. Whether stress is affecting your mental state or your physical state, it will always be there, but there is always ways to reduce your stress. Stress can be linked to exercise because for some people, running for a long period of time or doing a sport that they love could potentially decrease your stress. Learning to deal with stress will help your everyday life, and as proven by allopathic physicians,what are those? stress can play a key role in the development of chronic heart disease. If you identify the situations in your life that are causing you to experience severe stress and learn how to deal with them, doing daily activities will be easier and potentially more enjoyable. Many people try yoga, or just simple deep breathing exercises to decrease their stress (Schreiber, James 3).

Left heart disease arises from a wide range of cardiac disorders which is a frequent complication of pulmonary hypertension. Left heart systolic dysfunction, left heart diastolic dysfunction and left heart valvular disease are all included in group 2 what is group 2? which is associated with PH. Rheumatic mitral valve disease used to be the most common cause of PH in left heart disease. However, today it is more likely to be associated with hypertensive or ischaemic heart disease.(Guazzi, Marco et. al. 1). Pulmonary hypertension is mainly caused by left heart disease which arises in response to increased left ventricular or left atrial filling pressure in a wide range of cardiac disorders. PH is defined by a pulmonary arterial pressure Pulmonary wedge pressure is associated with LHD, otherwise defined as Group 2. Group 2 is divided into three different categories called, left systolic dysfunction, left heart diastolic dysfunction, and left heart valvular disease(Guazzi, Marco et. al. 2) you should explain this when you first introduce group 2 into your paper. Usually, abnormalities that result in LV or left atrial filling pressures are induced in patients with LHD. When increased filling pressure beings in the left heart, that is a sign of the start of a cascade of events, which causes a passive increase in backwards pressure on the pulmonary veins. Fragmentation may occur when the pulmonary venous is persistently elevated. The structure of the alveolar-capillary walls, also known at the "alveolar capillary stress failure" , which is characterized by capillary leakage and small alveolar oedema (Guazzi, Marco et. al. 3).

Specialist clinics and general cardiology currently help 76% of people that have a chronic disease. Usually, the age of the patients is around 32 years old and the patients usually follow up for 22 more years until they die. Deaths that occur without specialist follow up is around 48% The 48% of people that do not follow up with a specialist have not received pulmonary valve replacement but the or 52% ? of patients have (Wray, Jo et. al. 1). In the 1960's, open heart surgery for congenital heart disease began in the UK. Since around 2002, adult survivors of surgery outnumber children with congenital heart disease in the UK because of it's progressive success. Documents today state that in England and Wales, there are around 130,500 adults with 'moderate' or 'complex' congenital heart disease and almost all of them are survivors of the surgery that they received when they were children (Wray Jo et. al 2).

The main cause of an ever increasing list of chronic illnesses continues to be inflammation. At first, you might think that most diseases have their separate connections and bacteria. However, physicians can use a diagnosis of arthritis as a risk factor to predict cardiovascular disease because of how strong the correlation is between diseases even though it may not look like most diseases share attributes (Raw, Michelle 1). When inflammation happens, an area that needs aid is filled with blood in order to heal it as well as scrap and remove damaged tissue for recycling. The body has a system such as a police officer when they create a report on a suspect. The body does the same by identifying the damage and taking a note of it. These cells carry a guide with past encounters of bacteria, viruses, etc... so that in the future they could recognize the bacteria, viruses, etc... and get rid of it easier. The body will take note of molecular irritants, bacteria, viruses, and physical trauma. Trauma is communicated chemically even though a new chemical has not been detected. Since cells communicate with each other chemically, a failure of that system will indicate a problem in the same manner. The cells will then ask for reinforcements from the immune system (Raw, Michelle 2).

To conclude, heart disease is a very interesting topic to research about. Learning about heart disease was fascinating and I learned so much more stuff than I knew before. Many people don't consider heart disease when they are eating unhealthy, not exercising, smoking, and drinking, when they really should. What's weird is that even though it is the leading cause of death in America, I never hear about anyone dying from heart disease. However when I do, it's because of older people dying of heart disease. Especially if they had a past of unhealthy diets, not exercising, smoking, and drinking. Researching the topic on how to get heart disease, how to reduce your risk of heart disease, certain foods to eat, stress reduction, pulmonary hypertension, and inflammation. My presentation on heart disease was hard work, but I'm glad I put in the effort to learn about it because I know a lot more information about my topic.
**Watch your parenthiticals they are suppose to look like (Phillips year, 1).
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Natalie's Research Paper

Created By: Mariela Dagio
Did you know by smelling, drinking, or eating a drug could kill you? Drugs are a substance that can put a life to a very end in a second. Most scientists agree that the idea of drugs being known as either good or bad, although others may find drugs to be a substance that may cause harm if it were not to be handled with care and awkward sentence a someone who is well aware of the effects that will be present after taking the drugs. By reading this research paper anyone may be informed of such affects not clear that may be taken by drugs within the body.

Drugs are very dangerous, especially to someone's health. The consequences of drugs may be brutal and may continue for the rest of your life. Drugs instead of taking away your problems may add to them and cause someone to be at risk of new diseases that could not have happened to them if they had not taken drugs in the beginning. For instance your lungs may be affected, your heart, your brain, or your kidneys (Anonymous 2013,1).

Drugs may increase the chance of someone having a stroke, a cardiovascular disease, cancer, lung disease, or (don't include drugs) may also cause a person to have mental disorders (Anonymous 2011, 1). Drugs may also cause medical issues to arise within the body. Drugs may even cause someone to have Human Immunodefiency Virus or HIV, although these may occur by taking many doses of the drug, some diseases may come right after taking the first dose. Also some may think that to have a drug addiction it must be physically but truly when someone truly a drug addiction is a brain disease(Anonymous 2012,1,2).

Truly there are many examples of the effects of drugs that are taken on the body, both physically and mentally. For example the drug known as nicotine is a substance that greatly affects your brain (Doe 2009,3). Nicotine causes behavior problems along with immense stress. Some may believe that drugs are a stress reliever, when in fact it does the exact opposite. Instead of bringing relaxation it brings more stress.The only time a smoker would feel relaxation would be when the smoker returned to the normal state that a non-smoker would be able to experience very often in their life awkward phrasing (Doe 2009, 4). Another effect caused by nicotine is to have fewer dipomine receptors within the brain (Doe 2009, 5). Dipomine receptors are receptors that give a reward to one of the senses whenever a person were to eat, drink, or during copulation which may be another word for sexual intercourse. When the drug attacks the brain, it affects the dipomine which the smoker to be addicted to the drug. awkward When a drug addict takes more of the drug the drug addict begins to loose more dipomine due to the excess amount of dipomine that is released and bieng used (Doe 2009, 8). Also the faster a drug were to enter the body, as well means the faster the drug may become more addicting (Hanson 2013, 3).

Although drugs such as nicotine, marijuana, meth, or cocaine are considered very dangerous, perscription drugs may also be dangerous. In the United States the American Medical Association states that the third leading cause of death is known to be perscription drugs (Anonymous 2009, 1). Every year alone there are 100,000 deaths caused by perscription drugs within the hospitals. Although of that 100,000 about 6,000 deaths are caused by specifically non-steroid, anti-inflammatory drugs you should list a couple of those drugs , which alone is what most patients may die from. Also about 2 million patients become very sick and are hospitilized by the effects that are produced by the perscription drugs (Anonymous 2009, 2). But these near deaths and actual deaths come from short term reactions as well as immediate reactions. If someone were to have a longer reaction to the effects of perscription drugs, then the outcome may be that the patient is infected with new diseases or it may as well be even worse and the patient may get cancer (Anonymous 2009, 3).

If someone were to use a few perscribed drugs without the watch of a professional then the effects may be drastic. Some effects may be depression, confusion, anxiousness, or sleepiness, these are only some (Samhsa 2009, 1). Although, some may already know this information, they still continue doing drugs that will some day ruin their life.

Other than affecting the brain, drugs may affect other major organs within the body. An example may be the lungs, the lungs function is to eliminate the waste products that enter and other toxins. But when drugs interact with the lungs, due to it bieng more harder to destroy than some of the toxins within the lungs (Grey 2011, 2). In result, if the drug addict were to consume the drug a lot, the outcome would be drastic. The drugs may cause an infectious disease to occur within the lungs or it may also cause Hepatitis C (Grey 2011, 3). Hepatitis C is a type of hepatitis that is transfered into the infected blood that is created by drugs and may cause chronic liver disease.

Another major organ that may be affected by drugs is the heart. To take damage in the heart is very dangerous, especially since that organ is what pumps blood throughout your body. The way drugs affect your body is when it goes past your lungs and into your bloodstream. The blood then later on becomes infected and the infected blood may go into your heart.The infected blood may cause alterations in blood pressure as well as the heartrate. These alterations may cause a heart attack or a stroke, which will cause your heart to be damaged (Grey 2011, 4). An example would be cocaine, cocaine affects the cardiovascular system drastically. There are so many effects that may occur after just doing cocaine once. Cocaine may also cause someone to have a stroke, heart muscle inflammation, Arrythmia, or it may cause someone to have a stroke. Although these are not all the effects that may happen after taking cocaine just by taking cocaine once, it may cause someone to have these; plus more effects that are even more dangerous (Grey 2011,5). Also drugs may affect the hearts beats for example, Marijuana and cocaine can change a persons heart beat drastically and cause their heart as well to beat unregularly and may cause someone to die quickly and swiflty as well. This situation may occur when someone is taking the drug for the first time(. ?

Drugs may also affect the kidneys by making it harder to excrete drugs (Raich 2009,1). Kidneys are very small and are also very fragile. These small bean shaped organs may get damaged if the temperature of the body were to change. For example the drug known as Ecstacy changes the body temperature drasticly or the body temperature changes quickly. The change in temperature affects the kidney and causes the kidney to be damaged very badly once the temperature reaches a certain amount (Anonymous 2013, 3).

Cocaine may also cause heart failure, or other long term disabilities such as having siezures or having tremors. There are many other drugs that have drastic affects on the body, but cocaine is one drug that greatly affects the brain (Alexander 2012, 7). Different drugs are unique, each changes or may affect something differently in the body. For example Marijauna or LSD is known to cause the heart rate to change. But what some may not know is that Marijuana may as well cause paranoia or phsycosis.what's that? These effects are the reason why someone who is taking perscribed Marijauna is always being monitored by professionals or doctors due to marijuana making someone have phsychotic effects (Alexander 2012, 6).

When a drug is mixed with an already existing disease, the outcome may be that the disease may become more seadly? or that a new disease has been added. For example when someone is abusing drugs and they have Hepatitis C the person might result in having HIV or Human Immunodefiancy Virus. Some may not believe this fact, but there has been a lot of evidence found by these conditions (Martin 2009,1).

Drug abuse such as tobacco may cause different types of cancer to occur. For example tobacco may cause mouth cancer, Larynx, stomach, blood, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, and other cancers that are equally dangerous. Which is why drugs that are inhaled are dangerous due to them being able to damage the brain cells or the periphial system. These drugs are only some that are dangerous and can cause heartattacks, strokes, or other life threatening diseases(Anonymous 2011,1).

Drug abuse may be dangerous, but people who are around and inhale the drug as well may get equally sick. For example second hand smoke is dangerous due to it causing it to be hard for children to concentrate while in class. Second hand smoke may also cause changes in behavior, cognition, or paying attention while in class (Anonymous 2011, 3). Or well known Environmental Tobacco Smoke may also cause someone who have not smoked in all their life to have heart diseases or lung cancer, it is rated about 25 to 30 percent or 20 to 30 percent (Anonymous 2011, 4).

Studies have shown that injected drugs are beginning to be a large case for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, also along with other sexually transmitted diseases. Although injected drugs are not the only drugs that may contribute to the contraction of infectious diseases. Although it has been shown that the drugs known as meth, cocaine, or heroine have been the cause of AIDS or has mostly been the case of AIDS (Anonymous 2011, 5).

When drugs are used for a long time, they may release chemicals into the brain that are very dangerous for you. Also drug abuse may cause change in brain functions (Wood 2012, 1). Although due to change in the brain, it may cause the person to abuse drugs more due to the persons desire. Also some people may be born or inherites the genes that may cause them to abuse drugs in the future (Wood 2012, 2).

There are many small effects that occurs due to taking drugs. While most drug affects occur inwardly, some affects may occur as well to your physical appearance. For example someone who is taking drugs may cause someone to have a bloody nose, sleepiness, a random cough, loss of hair, the smell of drugs on clothing, eyes are blood shot or very red, marks on the skin, unablity to sit, behavior, unable to focus, must have the drug close at all times, infection on the skin, and the enlargement of the pupils. These are only half of the physical changes that are noticable in a drug user. Also these physical changes become more and more noticable as drug abuse continues (Brinsdi 2009,1).

Some of the reasons for the physical changes is due to the body trying to release the drugs. For example, the excessive cough is due to the body trying to release the drugs from the lungs. The body is trying to release the phlem that is increasingly gathering within the lungs along with the irratants that also have not been gathering in the lungs. awkward i don't inderstamd The body creates phlem to trap the toxic and chemical substances that are in the lungs. The phlem is the only way that the lungs can get rid of the bad substances that are beginning to gather. The reason as well that there is a lot of phlem is due to the tobacco in smoke freezes the cilia within your nose and it causes a lot of phlem to gather as well (Doe 2009, 7).

The physical change is not all that occurs to a drug user, the drug user also becomes emotionally unstable. For example some of the emotions that are presented are always being angry at others, feeling very lonely all the time, the feeling of fatigue, scared of being pushed away after the discovery of their addiction, cannot concentrate, or the unexplainable reason for their anxiety. There are also other ways they show the change in emotions that the drug user may do to show change (Brinsdi 2009,2).

It is said that drug abuse and mental disorders coexist with each other. It is said that mental disorders may be able to cause a person to go into drug abuse. Although in other cases drug abuse may cause someone to have mental disorders. This may occur especially to people with specific vulnerablilties. For example drug abuse and HIV/AIDS are interwined through epidemics such as? (Anonymous 2011,2).

Although someone may get hurt after taking a drug once, people can always stop the escalation of a drug by giving up on the drug. There are many ways for someone to be able to go and get help to stop using drugs for example, some use medication to help them stop craving the drug. The medication is known as Methodine, this medication may also help give the pleasure effects of opiates.explain what it is While other drugs such as Naltrexone stops the affects that are given off by certain drugs such as morphine, heroine, or codeine. Another medical pill that can be of use is the Buprenorphine, this medical pill helps to make sure that the person does not relapse and starts doing drugs again (Woods 2012, 4).

Drugs are substances that are very dangerous to someones health and are very viscious. Drugs that were spoken of are only some that are monsters in this world. Drugs such as nicotine, cocaine, or marijuana are just some of many that have taken over some people in America. Hopefully some people will be able to understand the dangers of such substances. This research paper is full of information on the dangers of drugs and the effects that occur after the consumption of such drugs. **If you are going to capatilaze the names of drugs, you have to be consistent and capatilaze all of them.


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KR, 2006

Created By: Mariela Dagio
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10826661


Suicide and Bipolar disorder

Abstract


Suicide, which is both a stereotypic yet highly individualized act, is a common endpoint for many patients with severe psychiatric illness. [1] The mood disorders (depression and bipolar manic-depression) are by far the most common psychiatric conditions associated with suicide. [2] At least 25% to 50% of patients with bipolar disorder also attempt suicide at least once. [3] With the exception of lithium--which is the most demonstrably effective treatment against suicide-remarkably little is known about specific contributions of mood-altering treatments to minimizing mortality rates in persons with major mood disorders in general and bipolar depression in particular. [4] Suicide is usually a manifestation of severe psychiatric distress that is often associated with a diagnosable and treatable form of depression or other mental illness. In a clinical setting, an assessment of suicidal risk must precede any attempt to treat psychiatric illness.
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Burton, 2012

Created By: Mariela Dagio

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201206/short-history-bipolar-disorder

A Short History of Bipolar Disorder

The concept of bipolar disorder is surprisingly modern.

Published on June 21, 2012 by Neel Burton, M.D. in Hide and Seek





The terms used for the bipolar extremes, ‘melancholy’ (depression) and ‘mania’ both have their origins in Ancient Greek. ‘Melancholy’ derives from melas ‘black’ and chole ‘bile’, because Hippocrates thought that depression resulted from an excess of black bile. ‘Mania’ is related to menos ‘spirit, force, passion’; mainesthai ‘to rage, go mad’; and mantis ‘seer’, and ultimately derives from the Indo-European root men- ‘mind’ to which, interestingly, ‘man’ is also sometimes connected. (‘Depression’, the clinical term for melancholy, is much more recent in origin and derives from the Latin deprimere ‘press down’ or ‘sink down’.) 
 

[1] The idea of a relationship between melancholy and mania can be traced back to the Ancient Greeks, and particularly to Aretaeus of Cappadocia, who was a physician and philosopher in the time of Nero or Vespasian (first century AD). [12] Aretaeus described a group of patients that who ‘laugh, play, dance night and day, and sometimes go openly to the market crowned, as if victors in some contest of skill’ only to be ‘torpid, dull, and sorrowful’ at other times. [2] Although he suggested that both patterns of behaviour resulted from one and the same disorder, this idea did not gain currency until the modern era.


The modern psychiatric concept of bipolar disorder has its origins in the nineteenth century. [3] In 1854, Jules Baillarger (1809–1890) and Jean-Pierre Falret (1794–1870) independently presented descriptions of the disorder to the Académie de Médicine in Paris. [4] Baillarger called the illness folie à double forme (‘dual-form insanity’) whereas Falret called it folie circulaire (‘circular insanity’). [5] Falret observed that the disorder clustered in families, and correctly postulated that it had a strong genetic basis.


[6] In the early 1900s the eminent German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856–1926) studied the natural course of the untreated disorder and found it to be punctuated by relatively symptom-free intervals. [7] On this basis he distinguished the disorder from démence précoce (schizophrenia) and coined the term ‘manic–depressive psychosis’ to describe it. Kraepelin emphasized that, in contrast to démence précoce, manic–depressive psychosis had an episodic course and a more benign outcome.


[8] Interestingly, Kraepelin did not distinguish between people with both manic and depressive episodes and people with only depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms. [9] This distinction dates back only to the 1960s, and is largely responsible for the modern emphasis on bipolarity, and hence on mood elevation, as the defining feature of the disorder.

[10]The terms ‘manic–depressive illness’ and ‘bipolar disorder’ are comparatively recent, and date back from the 1950s and 1980s respectively. [11] The term ‘bipolar disorder’ (or ‘bipolar affective disorder’) is thought to be less stigmatizing than the older term ‘manic–depressive illness’, and so the former has largely superseded the latter. However, some psychiatrists and some people with bipolar disorder still prefer the term ‘manic–depressive illness’ because they feel that it reflects the nature of the disorder more accurately.
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