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Sarah's Paper

Created By: Carolina Jaime
A2: Introduction:
Really good and interesting! Barely had errors.
Have you ever heard of the word melanoma or even know what it is? Well, melanoma is a skin cancer-disease that nobody in the whole wide world wants be diagnosed with. Throughout the way of life in the world there are many precautions being taken to save millions of lives. Scientists today are conducting researches to see whether or not aspirins have an ability to lower the risk of melanoma in women.These researches led many to believe what the aspirin's ability can do those who have skin cancer. Some may wonder  whether or not aspirins can truly lower the risk of skin cancer; however, if they were to review the main facts and conclusions of the researches then they may have a better understanding on what is being done.To fully understand about the aspirin's ability on life, they must understand what melanoma is, effects of melanoma, and facts of a having cure towards it.

Findings:
Melanoma is considered one of the most dangerous types of skin cancer in humans. It is the leading cause of death for those who are diagnosed with skin cancer-diseases. A statistic was used to show a one in a 75 lifetime risk of American newborns would be diagnosed with melanoma (Ordan et. al 2009 [2]). In 2013, an estimated amount of 76,250 men and women will be diagnosed with melanoma, and about 9,180 men and women will die from it. People could be diagnosed with melanoma at an early age from 15 to 29 years old. Melanoma can be treated as long as it is detected from an early start before it reaches the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are found throughout the body as it helps the human body to fight germs, infections, and other foreign substances.

Melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer that begins in the skin cells called the melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells that are located in the outer layer of the skin, which are responsible for producing melanin. Melanin is the pigment that not only gives the skin its natural color, but is also a protector towards UV light. When the skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes(what are melanocytes?) produce more pigment, which causes the skin to either tan or become darker (Uong A. 2010 [1]). Sometimes the melanocytes would cluster and surround a tissue which forms a noncancerous group called moles. Moles are very common in humans and the average amount of moles on a human body ranges from 10 to 50. Melanoma can occur in the mole or near it, but it can also appear on the skin that looks perfectly normal. Melanoma develops when the melanocytes become cancerous and multiply in an uncontrolled way. They can attack the skin around them as well as spread to other organs, such as the liver and lungs (Anonymous 2A 2013 [1]).

Melanoma is often caused by too much exposure to ultraviolet light in the sunlight, during the first 20 years of life. Melanoma is most common in light-skinned people rather than darker-skinned people. Those who are more likely to get melanoma than others are people who are easily sunburned, have a damaged immune system, and have more than 50 ordinary moles or unusual moles. People who had past episodes of severe sunburn, particularly in their childhood, have increased chances of developing melanoma. This is why parents should take plenty of precautions towards their children, because melanoma is considered a progression type of cancer. However, not all causes of melanoma are caused by sun exposure, for some may appear in covered areas of the body (Anonymous 2A 2013 [2]).

People with family members who are or were diagnosed with this disease may also have a risk with melanoma for it is considered as a hereditary type cancer. About 8 percent of victims diagnosed with melanoma have a relative with this type of disease. This type of melanoma is called familial melanoma were it is a genetic condition. The risk of melanoma can be passed down from generation to generation (Anonymous 2B 2013 [1]). Familial melanoma should be taken really seriously because of the fact that it is in the genes of the family it means more than one person can have it.

Symptoms caused by melanoma are not considered serious, however there may be a tingling or itching sensation being felt during the early stages. The signs of melanoma are quite difficult to identify, because of the fact that it might occur on skin that looks perfectly normal. Nonetheless, there are still some ways to identify melanoma, which are abnormal skin changes, changing moles, or a new mole. Melanoma tends to appear on the upper back, lower legs, head and neck. The torso is considered the most common location for developing melanoma in females with ages 15-29, due to high-risk tanning effects. To check to see if a mole has abnormal changes an ABCDE rule could be used for identification. The ABCDE rule outlines the signs of melanoma which are Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, Diameter, and Evolution (Anonymous 2A 2013 [3]).

Melanoma can be cured, only if it is detected during the early stages. A 99 percent success rate was determine during an average of five-year, for those who were treated before the disease expanded towards the lymph nodes (Anonymous 2013 [2]). This disease is considered preventable if people were to take precautions towards the sun's exposure. Melanoma is type of deadly disease in which, people should not joke around about and take as many precautions as possible. Many doctors today are telling their patients to take many precautions towards their skin. For example, to prevent any risk towards skin cancer people can apply sunscreen, wear protective clothing, and avoid tanning beds. It is most important to take precautions on children, for they have a growing risk towards all types of skin cancer (Anonymous 2013 [3]).

There are medications today that help lower melanoma and other cancer, however scientist found a shocking medication that helps prevent it. Scientists found evidence that proves anticancer drugs which are common to treat malignant cancer and does not modify the prognosis of patients. Malignant cancer is any type of cancer that spreads throughout the body in an abnormal progression. Nonetheless, there is a medication that is used in almost every household which also prevents melanoma (Ordan et. al 2009, [2]). That medication is an over-the counter drug called Aspirin. Aspirins are a synthetic compound which relieves pain, fever, arthritis and inflammation. Aspirins are consider life saviors, because not only are they relieving pains but other cancers as well (Zerbini et. al 2006, [1]). "Aspirin has already been shown to have protective effects on cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer in women," said Dr. Tang (Ricks 2013 [2]). Previous researches on aspirin found facts of the aspirins effect to suppress growth in cancer cells (Zerbini et. al 2006, [1]). There was an a experiment on an animal model that showed anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have shown to subdue a tumor growth (Cook et. al 2005 [2]). Therefore,current researches are being done to study the direct effect of aspirin on melanoma (Ordan et. al 2009, [1]).

Dr. Tang from Stanford University School of Medicine, and her colleagues, analyzed data that determined the aspirins affect towards melanoma.Their studies showed facts of the aspirins ability to reduce inflammation which may lower the risk of developing melanoma. Inflammation occurs in the early stages of melanoma, which causes the skin to become red and painful. Cancer cells that are inflamed tend to instantaneously spread and become more aggressive (Carrol 2013 [3]). A different research lab, studied the aspirin' stress-responsive effect on melanoma cells to see if there are more than one reasons as to why aspirins are working on cancer cells (Ordan et. al 2009 [3]).

Researchers are determining facts whether or not women should take aspirins on a regular basis. However, the available facts conclude that women who take aspirin on a daily basis are reducing their risk of developing melanoma. Many people are taking aspirin on a daily basis to lower their other health risk such as heart attacks, so taking aspirin also gives people benefits towards melanoma. (Park 2012 [1]). The length of time people use the medication can determine the depth of how effective the ability is (Carrol 2013 [1]). A conclusion was made to support the fact of taking aspirins as a long-term daily use is associated with reducing all types of deadly cancer (Jacobs et .al 2007 [3]).

Dr. Tang and other researchers used data from 59,806 Caucasian women to begin their researches. These researchers chose to concentrate on Caucasian women because of the fact that melanoma is more common among them. At the beginning of the study all of the women were asked about what they ate, what activities they tend to do, and what medication  they take. These questions were asked to organize women into groups, which are separated by subjects. Having these women organized by groups allowed researchers to do a statistic which specified the percentage of the aspirin's success rate (Carrol 2013 [2]).

There are several studies being done to learn about the aspirin's ability towards melanoma. One study examined patients who were participating in random but long-term activities which caused them to take a low dose of aspirin on a daily-basis. Many people take a low dose of aspirin everyday which happens to be 75 mg to 300 mg. This study allowed researchers to see about how many of the participants developed cancer. The data indicates patients who take aspirin on a daily-basis for five years have a 25 percent lower risk of cancer. The data also indicates that there was a 15 percent of lowering the risk of death from cancer (Park 2012 [2]).

In addition to this study, 12 percent of women were found to have a lower risk of developing melanoma during a 12 year period (Murphy 2013 [1]). All the same, doctors found that women who were taking regular aspirin for more than 5 years had a 30 percent lower risk of developing this disease. Regular aspirin is not an over-the-counter drug, for this type of aspirin requires a prescription (Murphy 2013 [2]). There were no data gathered on potentially harmful or deadly side-effects from taking aspirins on a daily basis (Jacobs et. al 2007, [4]).

Researchers today are initiating an assessment to figure out if the aspirin's ability to lower cancer will work with or without chemotherapeutic drugs (Ordan et. al 2009, [5]). After these researches, scientists are going to dissect the biological and biochemical pathways which are targeted by NSAIDs to see if there are any modified NSAIDs compounds that are more effective towards specific cancer cells (Zerbini et. al 2006, [3]). Recent clinical trials are evaluating to see whether or not there are other ways to use NSAID's for cancer. In example of the trial, researchers are testing to discover if the aspirin's effects will still work without even digesting it (Zerbini et. al 2006, [2]).

Even though taking aspirin may reduce melanoma and other cancers, there are side-effects in doing this task. Taking a high-dose of aspirin on a daily-basis may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding or gastrointestinal hemorrhage is hemorrhage (loss of blood) from the pharynx to the rectum. The degree of bleeding can range from nearly undetectable to acute, massive, and life-threatening. The United States Preventive Services Task Force is recommending consideration into who is taking aspirin therapy. There is a high level of precautions being taken when someone is being recommended to take regular aspirin. The reason as to why people are asked to be taking precautions when taking regular aspirin is because if a patient were to have a weak immune system then taking regular aspirin on a daily basis may cause internal bleeding (Jacobs et. al 2007, [5]).

Some people may wonder why they should take aspirins on a daily-basis if it may have effects. Even so, the side-effects only occur if people were mistreating the given dose of the medication and instead taking high-doses of the drug. The side-effects rarely occur, but they may appear if the patient were to either have a weak or damaged immune system, taking the wrong doses, and/ or taking a strong type of NSAIDs. Aspirin intake is not recommended for children for it may damage their organs or immune system. Researchers feel that people who are deemed to have "high risks" of melanoma should begin taking aspirins. Those people include: people who already had the disease, very light-skinned people, and people who are prone to sunburn (Murphy 2013 [3]). 

Conclusion:
As a final point of the research, people should still take precautions towards skin cancer. Even though there facts that conclude aspirins can help lower melanoma, it doesn't mean they should stop taking all of the other precautions towards the sun. Aspirins are consider as a life savior, however it is like an aid. The main thing is for people to take all necessary precautions towards the sun's exposure. The sections above were written to describe how deadly and important melanoma is towards all human bodies. There are various of researches being done in different countries to ascertain that aspirins really do help skin cancer and there are not any life-threatening side-effects. 

People in the world need to take as many precautions as they can towards melanoma, for it is a deadly disease that can take away lives. I feel that melanoma is a silent, deadly killer that can take away lives at any minute. People shouldn't have to suffer from melanoma or cancer in general, so to prevent this from happening to you or your love one (incomplete thought). There are plenty of easy precautions that can be accomplish so by doing this everyday it can lower the risk of all skin cancer. As a result of taking aspirin on a daily-basis, just think of it has your little helper because just taking one small pill of aspirin lowers your chances of skin cancer by many percentages. In the end, it is what you want to do for yourself and your future towards life. 
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Kaylin's Paper

Created By: Carolina Jaime
Conquering Cancer: The Power of Virotherapy
This paper is amazing.
Introduction

Do you know someone who suffers from cancer? Chances are that you do. Cancer is a deadly disease that claims the lives of many each and every day. It is a leading cause of death worldwide and spreads pain and grief throughout communities. As the problem continues, many scientists are trying to find a cure to stop this vicious disease. Many different methods have been studied, researched, and experimented with. Although not all scientists agree, I believe that oncolytic virotherapy could contain the properties to make it the next revolutionary treatment that is able to effectively and efficiently cure cancer.


Findings

Cancer is a very significant and dangerous disease. It affects many people in today’s society. In fact, one of every four individuals' cause of death is cited as cancer (Siegel 2013, 1). There are over one hundred different types of cancer (Anonymous 2010, 3). Cancer occurs when damaged cells inside of the body begin to divide erroneously. This division causes lumps or masses, called tumors, to appear (Anonymous 2010, 1). These tumors begin to wreak havoc with the body. They can grow incredibly large, interfere with vital systems within the body, and release hormones that conflict with normal body functions (Acs 2013, 1). When cancer cells successfully invade the body and begins to spread to other parts of the body, metastasis is said to have occurred. (Anonymous 2010, 2). Some forms of cancer, such as leukemia, do not result in the formation of tumors. It is no surprise that cancer has a high death rate once(delete) if it is not diagnosed quickly. If the disease cannot be caught quickly and treated, an individual is likely to face debilitating symptoms, including death (Acs 2013, 2). The impact of cancer is undeniable. In 2013 alone, there will be 1,660,290 new cases of cancer and over 550,000 deaths resulting from this deadly disease (Siegel 2013, 2) (Acs 2013, 3 & 4). While there is not yet a complete cure for cancer, many scientists are out in the field working hard to find a solution.

One form of biotechnological engineering that has gained a lot of attraction in recent years is oncolytic virotherapy treatment. Many scientists today believe that oncolytic viruses may contain the answer to ending cancer (Vile, Ando, et al. 2002, 1). Although this technique has been acknowledged and researched since the 1950’s, the lack of adequate resources and technology did not allow it to progress further (Li, Tong, et al. 2012, 6). However, the rapid growth of today’s society and its ingenuity has resulted in the reemergence and success of oncolytic virotherapy (Vile, Ando, et al. 2002, 3). Oncolytic virotherapy is the process by which certain viruses are introduced into the body. Viruses present an ideal way to attack cancer from the inside. These viruses selectively infect and break down cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed (Thompson 2013, 2). This targeted treatment makes it easier to kill tumor cells and lessen the impact of cancer on the body by eliminating cancerous cells (Paddock 2013, 3). Scientists believe that engineering oncolytic viruses to act as a biological weapon against cancer might be able to suppress or eliminate the disease completely. Although there are still many obstacles to get through, this new cancer treatment is starting to become more widely recognized as its unlimited potential continues to be tapped in to and developed further (Timmer 2013, 6). The promising results indicate that a solution for cancer may soon be found.

In oncolytic virotherapy, scientists alter the genetic makeup of viruses in order to optimize their chances of destroying, eliminating, and combating cancer (Thompson 2013, 2), (Timmer 2013, 2). These viruses are specifically made for this purpose and serve no other function. The process of oncolytic virotherapy is very complex. Viruses are engineered in many different ways and forms, each with their own use (Li, Tong, et al. 2012, 1). The most commonly used virus in this method of treatment is the adenovirus (Fikes 2013, 4). This virus is responsible for causing the common cold and has been intensively explored. It is particularly appealing because biologists understand its biological impact after years of curing colds and have abundantly used the virus in molecular biology and other research (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 1). Adenoviruses also carry favorable, distinct traits. For example, the genes that they carry into a cell work for a short period of time and then break down, making them viable candidates for genetic selectivity that do not permanently damage the body. Viruses can be applied through various means. Methods of applications include intramural delivery, viral vectors, and intravenous injections (Ferguson 2012, 1). Two main strategies are used during virotherapy in order to reproduce viruses and kill cancerous cells and tumors. The first strategy, called transductional targeting, involves scientists attempting to engineer viruses to selectively infect and destroy cells that have turned cancerous (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 3). This method is the most commonly used. The second approach occurs when a small part of DNA, known as a tumor specific promoter, is placed on the genes of the virus. The promoter activates and permits the gene to function only in cancer cells. The virus can enter normal cells, but the promoter will not activate within them, disallowing them to reproduce or kill healthy cells. However, once in the cancer cells, the promoter activates and lets the virus make millions of copies of itself, bursting the cancer cells and spreading to other cancerous cells in the process (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 4).

Oncolytic irotherapy is very advantageous in many different ways. Some of the benefits of this method are that it is safe, can affect many types of cancer, and advances the medical field further than ever before (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 6). Another reason that this method is favorable is because it is more efficient than traditional cancer eradication techniques, such as radiation and chemotherapy (Taber, Cheung 2010, 5). Oncolytic virotherapy kills a lower amount of healthy cells within the body, making it less damaging to important parts of the body such as bone marrow (Paddock 2013, 5). It can also affect a very broad spectrum of cancer types, making it a diverse and viable option. This method is very efficient at finding and eliminating cancer cells in the body without risking extra damage to other healthy cells that are not a threat (Taber, Cheung 2010, 6). The range at which oncolytic virotherapy is effective is large. One administration of a dose into an individual’s body can kill a large number of cancer cells and also provide access to tumors within the body that are in hard to reach places (Fikes 2013, 2). Lastly, the symptoms of oncolytic viruses are relatively tame in comparison to how much they help an individual. Within most clinical trials, patients given high dosage levels of oncolytic viruses only suffered flu-like symptoms lasting from twenty four to fourty eight hours (Paddock 2013, 5)(Li, Tong 2012, 5).


Although its potential is evident, using virotherapy to treat cancer also presents some disadvantages. When patients are given multiple doses of virus therapy, the immune system begins to send out antibodies and white blood cells that start to recognize the virus. As a result, subsequent doses end up being less effective because the immune system will immediately bind and deactivate the virus (Vile, Ando, et. al 2002, 5). One of the major concerns with this form of treatment is that it's long term effects are still relatively unknown. In 1999, an 18 year old died after receiving an infusing of virotherapy. His body shut down after an overwhelming immune reaction to the large dose of viruses he had been given (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 2). Since virotherapy is relatively new and expanding, scientists are still working on making viruses safer, but it is still too soon for scientists to determine if there are any significant factors that could damage a patient using this form of therapy. Also, creating these new viruses and altering their genes presents the danger of creating serious mutations or dangerous new diseases altogether (Taber, Cheung 2010, 6). However, these risks are always present in any type of anti-cancer therapy. In order to cure a dangerous and deadly disease, researchers must be able to take risks within reasonable boundaries.



There have been many successful clinical trials of oncolytic viruses as cancer treatment. Many companies involved in oncolytic virotherapy have made significant progress and great strides in the field (Anonymous 2010, 4). In clinical trials, different phases are tested. Phase 1 tests are designed to make sure that the drugs are safe for patients receiving them. Phase 2 and 3 trials are performed in order to determine the correct dosage levels and how much power it takes to produce an effect. After these phases, the treatment gets circulated and, if they are approved, eventually get put on the market (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 5).

Onyx-015, developed by Onyx Therapeutics, is a unique virus that has the potential to treat cancer effectively. Onyx-015 was created by genetically modifying an adenovirus and was extensively tested in trials to see if it could treat cancer (Thompson 2013, 3). This virus has the ability to detect the absence of p53, a specific protein with the body that all cancer cells lack (Timmer 2013, 3). As a result of this adaptation, the virus ignores normal cells and can only attack cancerous cells that lack the p53 protein. Onxy-015 is currently capable of targeting and destroying half of all major cancer types but is less effective against others (Vile, Ando, et al. 2002, 5). This virus has been tested in clinical trials extensively, with data suggesting that it is safe and selective for cancer (Li, Tong, et al. 2012, 3). However, the drug is ineffective alone and needs to be coupled with chemotherapy for optimal use, somewhat limiting its long term effectiveness (Ferguson 2012, 2). Research and funding has mostly ceased until the virus can show further potency.


Another virus that has undergone clinical trials in an attempt to defeat cancer is OncoVex, developed by BioVex (Thompson 2013, 5). Clinically, this drug can function by itself and does not need to be paired with other treatments, such as radiation or chemotherapy. This virus originates from a modified cold sore that replicates inside solid tumors, causing cancer cells to die (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 7). Also, the drug prompts the immune system to flag and subsequently eliminate cancer cells (Nettelback, Curiel 2008, 8). One of the downsides of this virus is that it can only be directly injected into tumors, making it unable to reach and treat any metastatic tumors that may have spread throughout an individual’s body. This virus has currently completed Phase 2 trials and is expected to enter the next test of trials soon (Li, Tong 2012, 7). If successful, research will continue and the Food and Drug administration will consider the drug for approval.


However, one of the most effective clinical trial to date utilizes a genetically engineered vaccinia virus, known as JX-594, as its test subject (Ferguson 2012, 3). This virus is already widely used in vaccinations and has a reputation of being safe, making it a viable candidate to test against cancer. This particular virus was modified in order to make it more cancer selective. The virus also increases immune system stimulation (Li, Tong 2012, 4). This virus works in two different ways. First, the virus recognizes and targets cancerous cells and reproduces inside of them, resulting in their death. Secondly, the virus helps induce immune responses towards cancerous cells and makes the body attack cancer cells (Fikes 2013, 5). The results, reviewed by analysts, determined that all dosage levels resulted in anti-tumor activity (Li, Tong 2012, 5). Further research showed that the 69% of patients displayed some form of resistance to cancer. The average life span of cancer patients utilizing this drug was also increased. The JX-594 virus is currently in phase 3 clinical testing and its data looks very encouraging (Thompson 2013, 4).





Conclusion

Although oncolytic virotherapy has not yet been proven to completely cure the deadly disease of cancer, the success that it has experienced and impact it has made on the medical field has been undeniable. This form of virotherapy shows a promising future as more and more companies and biologists alike continue to invest their time into finding a cure for cancer. Although great strides have been made in this area, there is still plenty of room for more development. More viruses are continuing to be genetically modified and virotherapeutic strategies continue to be investigated. It is expected that the collective efforts of the biological researchers and pharmaceutical companies will continue to contribute to the development of effective and safe viruses for cancer therapy. Scientists have done the previously unthinkable. Viruses, things that were once a cause of sickness, are now being used to wage warfare against one of the top killers in the world. Medicine is being revolutionized once again as the goals of science are being tested upon and expanded further than ever previously thought. In order to move forward and continue with this promising research, we must continue to probe, dissect, and understand the potential that viruses carry.
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Johnny's Paper

Created By: Carolina Jaime
2nd Semester Research Report​ ​
Capitalize first word after period ex) The dog sat. The cat sat too. You have no sentence variety. You don't have enough words, their is supposed to be just 1800 in your findings, that doesn't include the intro. and conclusion. Make sure to strip format because when I went to your paper, I couldn't even read it. Don't forget to hyperlink your work. Good luck !

Plants do amazing things. They can produce their own food by a process called photosynthesis, and are even able to grow up to 380 feet, but have you ever thought they would be able to power your television remote, electric toothbrush, or even fuel your car battery? latest discoveries in the madder plant (Rubia species), have shown purpuin which is much more environmentally friendly than the traditional ion battery, and can also perform better. I personally believe that batteries made from madder plant are more environmental friendly, as well as having a higher performance compared to the lithium ion battery. the madder plant has shown that the normal lithium battery is obsolete and performed better by storing more power and lasting longer. (you were repeating the same thing)

 The first lithium ion batteries to appear in stores came in 1991 (brodd 2012, 1). The use of the intercalated car- bon/graphite anode(define) took away the problems of the lithium metals ability to recharge because of the formation of dendrites and mossy lithium metal deposits with only a fairly small voltage penalty (brodd 2012, 2). Both the anode and cathode are lithium intercalation compounds(define) turned into polymer-bonded electrode structures based on polyvinylidene difluoride(define). The polymer allows the structure to have space and also takes account for the volume changes that occur in the active materials during both, charge and discharge (brodd 2012, 3). the battery cell operates by intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions into the anode and cathode, being dependent on whether the cell is being charged or discharged (brodd 2012, 4). This has been called to by many battery-making industries as a "swing", "rocking chair", or "lithium-ion" concept of cell operation (brodd 2012, 5). There is no lithium metal in the cell,contrary to popular belief, only lithium ions. The electrolyte is a mixture of alkyl carbonate solvents with lithium hexafluophosphate salt to provide conductivity for the battery cell(define) (brodd 2012, 5). The market for Li-Ion cells is driven by the demand of the portable electronic device market, especially the portable computer device, also known as the laptop. another product that drives the demand of the lithium ion battery up is the cellular telephone, also known as the cell phone.(The cell phone is another product that skyrockets the demand of the lithium ion battery.)  This market has had explosive growth in these products(rearrange) (brodd 2012, 6). The growth in demand for higher performance battery systems has risen quite rapidly over the past years, and this shows the increase in capacity since the initial commercial introduction in for the cylindrical 18650 cells(define). This remarkable increase in volume has been brought to the light through engineering improvements in the manufacturing processes as well as the introduction of new separator, cathode, and anode materials (brodd 2012, 7). There has been an intense effort to develop new materials. The original lithium cobalt oxide(define) has been changed by mixing in certain additives to stabilize the crystal structure and increase the capacity of the battery cell (brodd 2012, 8). while innovations in the lithium ion battery continue to advance, so does the mining of certain rare minerals. the amount of materials becoming obtained can be potentially dangerous to the environment; therefore, need new and improved batteries to power our new technologies, and to stop and take into consideration if we can keep grieving these materials from the earth.

Early attempts on lithium ion batteries built from organic cathode materials (polyaniline)(define), met with limited success due to numerous drawbacks such as temperature stability, limited rate capability (low power density), as well as low specific and volumetric energy density problems (reedy 2012, 1). Recently, Tarascon and co-workers(who are they??) came up with an innovative step towards the development of organic electrode materials through what they call "an elegant process". Their recent work on conjugated dicarboxylate anodes and lithium salt of tetrahydroxybenzoquinone(what is dicarbo and tretra whatever) suggested a possible alternative to current inorganic based electrodes, which are extremely hazardous to the environment. Recent studies on bio-based materials show and demonstrate the prudent use of biomass for value-added chemicals and products in a bio refinery concept (reedy 2012, 2). organic electrode material for lithium ion batteries, also called purpurin, has been taken and extracted from a common plant called Madder, most often used as a dye for fabrics. The extracted and chemically lithiated purpurin, shows extremely well reversible lithium ion storage properties; therefore, it could lead to the development of a green, environmentally friendly and sustainable, Li ion battery (reedy 2012, 3).
Now this is where it gets scientific. To realize the reversible electrochemical performance of this novel electrode material, a working electrode was prepared by mixing 80% of purpurin/CLP and 20% of carbon by weight. (delete) Figure 1(why does it say figure 1, if your not even showing a picture?) (a)(delete) shows the cyclic voltammogram(define) of the purpurin electrode conducted at scan rate of 0.1 mVs−1 in 1 M solution of LiPF6 in 1:1 (v/v)(delete) The mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)(define) as an electrolyte against Li metal and is a counter and reference electrode. The cyclic voltammogram measurement of the purpurin electrodes showed reversible lithiation/de-lithiation(what?) process in the purpurin molecule. The first cathodic(what is cathodic?) scan showed a peak around. As it can be observed from the cathodic scan of the cyclic voltammogram the lithiation process begins at 2.4 and becomes quite large at ~2.0. The first anodic(define) scan has shown two small peaks around ~2.6 and 3.2, respectively, associated with the de-lithiation process of purpurin. In the following scans of the cyclic voltammogram, the peaks of the cathodic scan shifts to the right by ~0.2, hence reducing the hysteresis(define) between the anodic and cathodic peaks. This leads to better reversibility of the electrode around ~2.0 (reedy 2012, 4).

There is scientific proof that the lithium ion battery produced by the Madder plant is environmentally friendly (you keep writing that it is environmental friendly, pick different words). environmental(again) requirements regarding the mobility of energy usage are forcing most automakers to develop hybrid electric vehicles, which allows for a more efficient and thus, less polluting use of fossil fuel combustibles (electrochem 2010, 1). Purpurin, extracted from madder root, center,(delete) is chemically lithiated for use as an organic cathode in batteries (milo 2013, 1). even if it has been proven that these batteries are more sustainable to the environment, the concentration of these batteries aren't that large. "Green batteries are the need of the hour, yet this topic hasn't really been addressed properly," Reddy said(who's Reddy??). "This is an area that needs immediate attention and sustained thrust, but you cannot discover sustainable technology overnight." He says the focus of the research community is currently still primarily on improving the features of conventional batteries. Issues such as sustainability and recyclability tend to get sidelined (milo 2013, 2). "Though lithium-ion batteries are the standard," Reddy said, "rechargeable units cost a lot to produce.They're not environmentally friendly. They use cathodes of lithium cobalt oxide, which are very expensive. You have to mine the cobalt metal and manufacture the cathodes in a high-temperature environment (milo 2013, 3). And then, recycling is a big issue," he said. "In 2010, almost 10 billion lithium-ion batteries had to be recycled, which uses a lot of energy. Extracting cobalt from the batteries is an expensive process. Eliminating cobalt would mean eliminating a hazardous material, allow batteries to be produced at room temperature, and greatly reduce the cost of recycling" (milo 2013, 4). (you keep saying what Reddy says about lithium battery but include your own words as well) Moreover, growing Madder, or other biomass crops to make batteries would soak up carbon dioxide and eliminate the disposal problem -- without its toxic components, a lithium-ion battery could be thrown away (reddy 2011, 3). Best of all, purpurin also turns out to be a no-fuss ingredient. "In the literature there are one or two other natural organic molecules in development for batteries"(who said this?) (reddy 2011, 4).

there is also reason to believe that obtaining these batteries in the future will be better for you,(delete) the consumer. first, the consumer can save money by using rechargeable Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) batteries (cooper 2012, 1). eventually, alkaline batteries can be replaced with higher capacity, environmentally friendly,(you keep repeating yourself with "high capacity" and "environmental friendly" try something different) rechargeable NiMH or Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries (cooper 2012, 2). What's more, rechargeable batteries are usually much less expensive to use - if you know the right ones to buy and the best way to use them to get the most out of your purchase. Too many people just buy batteries arbitrarily(what's this?) and then have a bad experience and just go back to, single use, throw away batteries (cooper 2012, 3). the battery can be made by just a few easy steps: dissolve the purpurin in an alcohol solvent and add lithium salt. When the salt's lithium ion binds with purpurin the solution turns from reddish yellow color to pink. The chemistry is quite simple (reddy 2011, 5). (don't use the words "you" or "I", try using "the consumer")

The future outlook of the Madder battery also looks quite good for the consumer, as well as for the environment. The team(what team?) estimates that a commercial green Li-ion battery may be only a few years away, counting the time needed to ramp up purpurin's efficiency or hunt down and synthesize similar molecules. We(whos we?) can say it is definitely going to happen, and sometime soon, because in this case we(again, who's we?) are fully aware of the mechanism (reedy 2011, 6). The goal, according to lead author, Arava Leela Mohana Reddy, a research scientist in the Rice lab of materials, is to create environmentally friendly batteries that solve many of the problems with lithium-ion batteries in use today (williams 2012, 2).

Also, there is scientific proof that the Madder plant version of the lithium battery can actually outperform the ion battery. Li4Ti5O12, which is a high performance anode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries (electrochem 2012, 1). Crystalline nanoparticles(define) are obtained in a single step and in less than one minute, by mixing the reactants with superheated water in a continuous flow reactor at near- and supercritical conditions (electrochem 2012, 2). overall, the annealed(define) nanoparticles have excellent electrochemical properties (electrochem 2012, 3). further optimization of this rapid, green and scalable synthesis approach is suggested (electrochem 2012, 4).

All in all, I personally believe that batteries made from the madder plant are more environmentally friendly, as well as a higher performer compared to the lithium ion battery. the madder plant has shown that the normal lithium battery is obsolete. it shows this by being more environmentally friendly, as well as performing better by storing more power and lasting longer.(same exact thing from intro. SWITCH IT UP) the madder battery is soon to be within the consumers grasps. as technology and research in the madder plant continue to advance, so does the day the consumer sees one hundred percent organic batteries in all local stores. if more people in the world start seriously considering organic batteries to power their everyday things, research will continue, and eventually replace the lithium ion battery. can you imagine using your cell phone, computer, clock, flashlight, cd player, and even your car running off of something that grew in the floor? this can become a reality if we, as a human race, join together and start considering the madder plant for our batteries. all we need is YOUR support! (consider changing your ending statement)
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