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Alberto's peer edit

Created By: Daylen Gargalis
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Imagine one treatment to repair and reconstruct the body from illnesses such as Alzheimer's, preventing extinction of endangered species and maybe even cure aging. Scientists may have found a way to cure specific illnesses and failing organs by replacing organs and cloning cells, but of course there are many obstacles to surpass. There are many people that are against this type of research for many reasons, some even false and blocking the way for science to thrive. Stem cell research without a doubt makes you think for yourself, and has great, promising outcomes in the near future. Clarify thesis and plan.

 A) Backround info on stem cells
There are two types of stem cells and both are found in every living organism. Embryonic stem cells are are responsible for developing a mammal to maturity. Adult stem cells (which ones) are responsible for repairing the body after maturity. Both types are thought to be able to treat a great number of illnesses by pushing the body to repair itself (Anonymous B, 1). There are already some uses of these cells proven to benefit patients. When one has Leukemia a more advanced way of treating the illness is a transplant of bone marrow to help slow down the incapacitating condition of the patient. Also, researchers believe that cultivating stem cells can give more possibilities to the treatment of many other illnesses including patients with strokes, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease (Anonymous B, 2). 

Although adult stem cells have proven very useful for some diseases, they have not been capable of producing as many cell types as embryonic stem cells (Weiss 2008, 1). On the other hand few question the ability of embryonic stem cells. Heart disease, the biggest killer in United States, may be cured with embryonic stem cells. They can be trained to grow into heart muscle cells that clump together and pulse in astonishing union. These cells have been tested with mice and pigs and when injected they fill in for injured or dead cells then speeding up recovery. Also studies have prompted a stem cells potential for curing other illnesses such as diabetes and spinal cord injury (Weiss 2008, 2). Explain more

 B)Effects on patients

This method of repairing the body seems very promising, although there is one big question which is, is there any risks on the patient. Some are worried because of animal research showing that in some cases embryonic stem cells form into tumors or may change into unwanted types of tissue. An example of the unwanted tissue would be the formation of bits of bone in for example a heart that the cells are supposedly repairing. Supporters respond to this saying that these occurrences are rare and much has been learned on how to prevent this, and of course as well as many other matters practice and study lead to perfection. (Weiss 2008, 3) Says "Their approaches vary, but on one point, all seem to agree: How humanity handles its control over the mysteries of embryo development will say a lot about who we are and what we're becoming." Also, others against this study say that it may easily cause cancer in patients(Anonymous B, 2). 

The greatest risk human cloning poses is on the health of babies born with this procedure if experimented with the technology we have today. Experiments with animals have shown that although the cloning of an animal is possible a great number of newly born animals die in early development stages or a short time after birth. Additionally a great part on these animals are born with defects. Other than unreliable claims, human cloning has never been performed but a big possibility is that human clones will likely have birth defects. One possible cause for these defects are external influences other than genes(Pedro 2012, 2).

 C)Evidence of cloning

Therapeutic engineering is part of the larger rising field of regenerative medicine. This also includes the extraction of stem cells from adult tissues and application to ill conditions. This method involves collecting cells from the patient, then creating cells capable of forming many types of cells, developing the cells for the appropriate type of tissue, multiplying these cells, and finally implanting these cells back into the body. This process also shows that there is a possibility of obtaining cells this way and replacing dying neurons to treat the illness Alzheimer's, and maybe even treat aging with stem cells. Also, it is possible to correct genetic errors in stem cells, therefore making new treatments for patients with genetic illnesses(Pedro 2012, 3). 

The beginnings of stem cell research can be traced back to 1963 in China when the late embryologist transferred DNA from a male Asian carp cell, a freshwater fish, to an egg of a female Asian carp. This process produced the worlds first cloned fish.researchers had cloned other organisms such as micro-organisms, nematodes and amphibians in previous decades but never an organism so complex as Dizhou Tong did. The experiment appeared to be entirely successful and even the cloned fish created a tiny carp. He continued his work and after 10 years Tong inserted the DNA of an Asian carp into the egg of a European crucian carp created the first interspecies clone. Based on this mans research Chinese scientists developed breeding methods so great that the nation now makes half of the world's agriculture harvest (Liao 2007, 2). Think about adding more sources

October 2011 is a day marked for the first stem cells created from human clones. Although these cells were not normal and wouldn't work in stem cell therapies because they had three sets of chromosomes, two from the adult cell and one extra from the egg, this still was a breakthrough and may lead the way to the treatments of so many promising treatments from these cells which is the dream of many scientists (Brown 2011, 1). Human embryos are the base of the stem cell studies which is why women are a great contribution in this field, although there are few donors and scientists are in great need for them. (Brown 2011) says "The authors' approach represents the first step towards acknowledging women as genuine participants -- co-producers even -- in the generation of new knowledge." On the other hand we need to find a way of obtaining embryos for studies another way that does not put young women at risk and may also help obtaining more embryos (Brown 2011, 4). Check the hyperlinks.
 
In 1997, Ian Wilmut and others at the Roslin Institute in Scotland invented a synthetic method of obtaining mammalian clones from mature animals therefore allowing asexual reproduction with mammals. A sheep named Dolly was the first mammal formed with this method although cloning had been done in other species including frogs. The basic concept of cloning  is removing the nucleus of the mother cell, then injecting the cell in an egg without a nucleus. Delicate cell conditions and at times electric shock allows the nucleus to come together with the egg to be inserted into the womb and generate a new organism in some cases. This method of cloning is called nuclear transfer and has been performed with many other species in recent years. With all of these organisms this method makes them have the same nuclear genome of the mother(Pedro 2012, 5). 

Nuclear transfer is already being put to good use. This method has been used in agriculture for cloning a disease-resistant bull that had died and cloning the Mouflon lamb  a member of an endangered species of sheep. The cloning of endangered species is a rising anticipation for conservation efforts (Pedro 2012, 1). It is possible to acquire stem cells from adults without the need of a blastocyst. However, these adult stem cells are less powerful and have more limited applications as embryonic stem cells do. Although the embryonic stem cells are the ideal one for research there may have recently emerged an alternative with a technique called pluripotency which allows adult stem cells to be transformed into pluripotent cells which are capable to develop several different cell types. Although this brings great excitement to scientists across the world this method is not yet proven to be safe for the clinic. 

 D)Evidence of obstacles 

Many oppose the research and experiments with stem cells for a number of reasons. This is where religion, politics, and the people argue over this topic and whether or not this should be allowed. There are many ideas over this topic for example one may say that stem cell research should be allowed but only to a certain extent not permitting human cloning but the regenerating of dead tissue and cells is allowed. Others have also related this idea to abortion but this is misleading for the reason that an individual is not destroyed to generate embryonic stem cells. The process uses a cellular mass known as a blastocyst which will not develop an individual. These misleading ideas are slowing down the research that one day may save the lives of thousands of people (Pedro 2012, 2). 

Some countries such as Germany have already prohibited some stem cell research worrying about unethical human experimentation. Other countries as well as the U.S. have set strict limits on the government funding of stem cell research although the private sector has been left to do as it wants. Other countries including China, U.K., Singapore and Korea have set out to become the center of activity for stem cell research, providing funds for the research and encouragement as well as boundaries (Weiss 2008, 4). China has recently been increasing its effort in stem cell research and practicing the field. A basic research part is the research of bone marrow and embryonic stem cells. Hospitals have recorded the application of stem cell treatment to illnesses such as heart failure, liver failure and lower limb ischaemia. what? Therefore, China is the most liberal and ideal environment for human embryonic stem cell research.(Liao 2007, 4).

However, the Chinese government is allowing research on human embryos and cloning to continue for therapeutic purposes. In 2001, committees from around China came together and suggested proper guidelines on human embryonic stem cell research. They banned buying and selling of human embryos for commercial purposes and reproductive human cloning which is what most nations banned. The establishment of a new organization was also proposed that centralizes the respectable research of stem cells in China. Human reproductive cloning was not permitted at all in these guidelines and on December 24,2003 these guidelines were enacted by the Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Health in China (Liao 2007, 5)

There are also other obstacles that scientists encounter when studying stem cells outside of laws. Obtaining embryos is very difficult when one is not able to buy them from someone, and donors are very rare maybe even only having one per year. It is difficult to get donors when others are offering to pay for embryos for reproduction and of course people rather get paid for their embryos (Brown 2011, 2). The New York team that created the first stem cells from human clones had bought the embryos they used. To try and avoid any problems the group offered the donor $8,000 for the time and risk of the process and after let her decide whether to donate for reproduction or study. This was obviously more convincing for the women (Brown 2011, 3

E) Conclusion

Overall, stem cell research is shows how much we can improve our medicine and the promising scientific breakthroughs that this study has in store for us in the near future. With stem cells we may be able to heal all kinds of illnesses and maybe even cure aging. Scientists can not do all this by themselves in the circumstances right now so that's why we need your help. Step up and be part of this revolutionary study! Add more to conclusion

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