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Erica's paper

Created By: Daylen Gargalis
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TracHave (One word?) you ever wondered if people who are high are realizing what harm they are doing to their body as well as there brain? Before this project, I had always thought the outcome of marijuana was used to only get someone high. After completing this project, I now realize that the effects of marijuana are much more than that. Marijuana has huge effects long and short term on the human brain as well as the human body. Abusers are choosing to take many risks when deciding to get high.  Research has proven that the use of marijuana negatively affects the human brain as well as the human body.

FINDINGS

Marijuana comes from hemp flowers of the cannabis sativa that are shredded and dried.  You may not know the drug by its correct term, but maybe by its slang term. Maybe you know the drug by the name of weed, pot, or even Mary-Jane.The chemical found in marijuana is known as THC,delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This chemical, is also known as a cannabinoid chemical (Bonoser 2013 12).THC can do much harm to the human body as well as the brain if the drug is abused. "Many first time users, smoke marijuana to experiment with it. When a user smokes marijuana, the THC chemical enters the lungs. Passing through the lungs, the THC enters the bloodstream, which carries the chemical to the human brain (Millwork 2013 2)".  Majority of these people do not become addicted to the substance. When smokers do become addicted, it is rather easy for them to quit. Marijuana has a very limited amount of withdrawal symptoms, making the quitting process easier. (Gumbiner 2010 1,2).

Marijuana's short term side effects eventually wear off. They usually last for about 24 hours. Of course, the high you get from the Chemical THC What is it? wears off. After users smoke marijuana, the have the feeling of feeling relaxed.  They feel as if they have escaped all their problems. Some short term side affects that eventually wear of are as followed: feelings of intoxication, relaxation, altered perception of time and distance, intensified senses, laughter, talkativeness, a decrease in anxiety as well as alertness (Tracey 2013 7). Sleepiness as well as reddening of the eye can occur. Most users suddenly have a greater appetite. Users can loose sense of the time. There vision and hearing become affected. Using marijuana regularly, can lead to the use of other substances as the main way the user copes with life, making their chances of using another substances even higher than those who don't use the drug (anonymous 2013 9). Marijuana can also harm your immune system. It limits your body and can cause your body to be unable to fight off viruses as well as it diverse types of cells in the body. Because of this, your chances of screening out cancers cells and eliminate infectious diseases are very limited (annoymouse 2013 10).  Many short sentences

Marijuana also includes long-term side effects. Studies have proven, the lungs as well as heart rate was affected by frequent use. frequent users, have a high risk of affecting their immune system, heart, lungs, and reproductive system. New users, within the first 2 to 3 hours have a 20%-100% rise in heart rate.(Tracey 2012 1). When it comes to their reproductive system, in both men and woman hormones may be affected. It can even cause a delay in puberty for young men. For females, when marijuana has become a daily use or used multiple times, it can cause a disruption to our monthly menstrual cycles and eggs may not be released from our ovaries. (annoymouse 2013 8)."When men smoke marijuana they sperm count decreases massively. Decreased circulating testosterone levels come into play, as well. When females choose to smoke during their pregnancy, their babies weigh less, are shorter, and have smaller head circumferences at birth (Committee on Substance Abuse 2013 (journal 5)". When users smoke marijuana there eyes can dilate. This can cause colors to appear more intense.(Bonoser 2013 1).  Abusers are at risk for possible heart attack, heart failure, and even stroke.. When the smoke is inhaled, it goes to your lungs. This may cause lung cancer. One study had found that over an 8-year period, respiratory health had shown a greater decline among marijuana smokers than among tobacco users. When marijuana is smoked, 1/3 more tar is deposited into the respiratory tract compared to tobacco smoking (Tracy 2013 2).   When it comes to a users emotions, many of them become suicidal or very depressed.Weekly users, can double their risk of depression later on life. (annoymouse 2013 5).  Many frequent users also experience panic attacks.  Marijuana doesn't just affect your body and brain but limits your social life. "Many abusers are affected at school, work, with family issues, recreational and social activities. Impaired thinking occurs as well. (millwork 2013 8)". For many, school either becomes too difficult for them or they just don't care anymore. "Several studies have shown, workers whom smoke marijuana have an increase in absences and job turnovers. For example, a study among postal-workers found that employees who had tested positive for marijuana use on a pre-employment urine drug test, had 55 percent more industrial accidents, 85 percent more injuries, and a 75 percent increase in absenteeism compared to those who have tested negative for marijuana use (annymouse 2013 3)". "Adults who smoked marijuana daily believed it helped them function better, improved self-awareness and improved relationships with others. However, researchers found that users were more willing to tolerate problems, suggesting that the drug served as a buffer for those who would rather avoid confronting problems than make changes that might increase their satisfaction with life. The study indicated that these subjects used marijuana to avoid dealing with their difficulties and the avoidance inevitably made their problems worse. Although users believed the drug enhanced understanding of themselves, it actually served as a barrier against self-awareness (annoymouse 2013 9)". Many short sentences. Combine some

Research has proven, the memory deficits following the use of marijuana are the major adverse effects of this widely abused drug. "Marijuana exprosure produces many long-term disruption on the human brain. The many memory deficits that are produced by the marijuana arise via interaction of the psychoactive component (Hoffman, Oz, Yang, Lichtman, Lupica 2013 2 )". A group of researches did an experiment to test the effects of Marijuana on the attention span of those who use the drug vs. those who do not use the drug. Before they had proceeded on with the experiment, MRIs were performed on the subjects. The results from the MRIs had shown decrease in grey matter but an increase in white matter. There was a smaller amount of whole grey matters.  Studies showed, that the marijuana users demonstrated an altered brain activation compared to the subjects who did not smoke marijuana. The brain regions that had a decrease in brain activation across both of the marijuana groups included the following: right lateral prefrontal, DMP, and medial cerebellar brain regions. The Cerebellum is involved in multiple attention requiring tasks. The researches conducted more testing on these individuals. The researches tested all the subjects urine. The subjects who had tested with positive urine had shown greater activation in the medial front regions, parietal regions, and the right medial cerebellum (Chang, Yakupov, Cloak, Ernst 2013 7)". "A good working short memory, is well needed to learn as well as to perform tasks that call for more than one and or even two steps (annoymouse 2013 11)". Studies have also shown, that those smoking the substance, people have shown the same lack of coordination and ability on a standard "drunk driver" test as do those who have had too much alcohol to drink (annoymouse 2013 12).
 
Another experiment had been performed, and new results had appeared."Researchers had experimented whether the age of use was related to the cumulative THC exposure What is it?. The findings had proven that the greater cumulative THC exospore lead to the lower brain activation in the medial cerebellum. The effects had turned out to be even more severe in the individuals whom had first  used the drug at a younger age, possibly in their teens or even younger (Chang, yakupov, Cloak, Ernst 2013 10 )". "The earlier teens do begin to smoke marijuana, the more likely they are to become dependent later on throughout life (annoymouse 2013 8)". Research has also shown, adolescents who choose to use marijuana are 104 times more likely to use cocaine compared to those who have never smoked marijuana before (Comitee On Substance Abuse 2013 7).

Inside your brain, you have cannaboid receptors that are found in the cerebellum. "It was not till the 1990s that cannabinoid receptors in the brain, responding to THC, were discovered (Tracy 2013 4)". "The cannabinoid receptors control your emotions, your mood, memory, thinking and much much more These cannaboid receptors are affected causing coordination, sensory perception, time perception, concentration, memory and pleasure to be out of whack. When marijuana is inhaled or smoked the THC flows into the bloodstream up to the cannabinoid receptors located in your brain.  "When THC comes into play, if overtakes the endocannabinoid system and this is when the high takes places. (millwork 2013 2)". "Research had shown that THC exerts all of its known central effects through the CB1 cannaboid receptor (Iversen 2013 1)". Another location of the cannaboid receptors are located in your immune system. (annoymouse 2013 4). "When the cannaboid receptors are harmed or disrupted, your short-term memory, coordination, learning and problem solving are harmed. (Bonoser 2013 8,9,10,11)". From the harmful chemical found in the substance, the gray matter found surrounding neurons begins to deter ate after a certain period of time. Many users start off at a young age, because of this many of their IQ levels drop. Marijuana abusers are also at high risk for schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. THC affects your corpus collosum which controls your emotions. "Cannabinoid receptors are activated by a neurotransmitter called anandamide. Anandamide belongs to a group of chemicals called cannabinoids. THC is also a cannabinoid chemical. THC mimics the actions of anandamide, meaning that THC binds with cannabinoid receptors and activates neurons, which causes adverse effects on the mind and body (Bonoser 2013 12)". "High concentrations of cannabinoid receptors exist in the hippocampus, cerebellum and basal ganglia. The hippocampus is located within the temporal lobe and is important for short-term memory. When the THC binds with the cannabinoid receptors inside the hippocampus, it interferes with the recollection of recent events. THC also affects coordination, which is controlled by the cerebellum. The basal ganglia controls unconscious muscle movements, which is another reason why motor coordination is impaired when under the influence of marijuana (Bonoser 2013 13)". add What are some of these things are

When choosing to smoke marijuana, along with the side affects there are many risks your opting to take. You could have a huge decrease in your performance during your sports. This is caused by the powerful chemical THC. Your increasing your risk with getting in trouble with the law. Smoking marijuana is linked to increase in panic attacks. You could very easily do something that embarrasses yourself or even hurt you. For example, driving under the influence or even engaging into risky sexual behavior leading you to increase your chances of catching sexually transmitted diseases. You could loose interest in your appearance as well (annymouse 2013 1,2,3,4,6). When frequent users make the decision to quit, they face multiple withdrawals. They may crave the substance for long periods of times. They can have trouble sleeping. Another withdrawal may include a decrease in appetite. Luckily, overtime, these symptoms frequent users experience slowly go away within a couple weeks of quitting (Millwork 2013 12,14)"

conclusion 
So, the next time you go to smoke that joint remember the negative outcomes as well as the risks your taking. Is it worth endangering your cannaboid receptors, becoming at high risk for a possible heart attack or even possible stroke? Or the risk of becoming addicted. Always remember once addicted quitting is hard but is always an option. Take the road that's less traveled. Be smart and choose the correct thing to do. So the next time you go to smoke that joint, as yourself the following: If the short term side effect, the high, worth the long term effects on your brain and your body? A little jumbled up

Notes:
Anonymous is spelled wrong.
As you mentioned, hyperlinks need to be fixed
You tend to just list off chemicals. Add an explaination of what they are




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