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Bird List

Created By: Mackenzye Smith
Date: March 16, 2013
Location: Eagle Trail in Santa Ana Mountains
Authority Identifier: Sibley's NA

Common Name: Raptor
-use flight for hunting
-have talons and beaks
-hunt mainly vertebrates
-predatory lifestyle

Common Name: Cooper's Eye
-long, rounded tail
-white tip on tail
-large head
-feathers on back of head raised

Common Name: Bushtit
-long tail
-feed on insects and invertebrates
-live in flocks

Common Name: Western Scrub Jay
Scientific Name: Aphelocoma californica
-brighter coloration
-throat is white with blue coloration
-blue head
-gray-brown back

Common Name: Spotted Towhee
Scientific Name: Pipilo maculatus
-white belly
-long, dark tail
-white spots on backs
-round body
-thick beak

Common Name: Wrentit
Scientific Name: Chamaea fasciata
-short wings
-long tail
-short bill
-pale eyes

Common Name: California Quail
Scientific Name: Callipepla californica
-males= dark coloration
-females= grey-brown and light coloration
-round body
-small head

Common Name: Northern Mockingbird
Scientific Name: Mimus polyglottos
-highly noted "mimicking ability"
-light colored belly
-gray-brown feathers
-white patches on wings

Common Name: Yellow-rumped Warbler
Scientific Name: Setophaga coronata
-streaked backs
-white patches on wings
-streaked breast
-yellow patches

Common Name: California Thrasher
Scientific Name: Toxostoma redivivum
-prefers to be hidden
-primarily brown
-dark patches
-dark eyes
-feeds on insects and invertebrates

Common Name: California Towhee
Scientific Name: Melozone crissalis
-brown coloration
-streaked throat
-long tail

Common Name: Red Tail Hawk
Scientific Name: Buteo jamaicensis
-predatory lifestyle
-strong wings
-short tail
-broad shape
-whitish underbelly
-short bill

Common Name: Turkey Vulture aka Turkey Buzzard
Scientific Name: Cathartes aura
-keen eyesight
-strong sense of smell
-large wingspan
-brownish-black body
-gray coloration on wings
-short beak
-small head
-gray-brown eyes

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Student Project Google Views Count April 2013

Created By: Gambassa Admin
As reported by Google Analytics

Report Period Mar26 - Apr 25th 2013
Ranking  Student Project Visitor View Count
#1  http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2744/Sarah'sStarfishReport.html 3,500
#2 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/4498/SarahandJessica'sTimeline.html 3,500
#3 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2769/JacobDaviesSpringResearchPaper.html 2,500
#4 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/1837/DavidLuoTimeline.html 1,300
#5 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2718/DaiseeGonzalezAfricanLion.html 1,300
#6 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2773/KellyVerakisBlueMarlinResearchProject.html 1,300
#7 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/3245/JessicaAndTrevor'sGeologicalTimeline.html 1,300
#8 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2760/RolandOrtega'sNileCrocodileReport.html 1,000
#9 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2771/AveryHorne'sIvoryBilledWoodpeckerreport.html 1,000
#10  http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2721/AnthonyRondonRingTailedLemur.html 900

Report Period Jan 1st - Apr 25th 2013
Ranking   Student Project Visitor View Count 
 #1 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2769/JacobDaviesSpringResearchPaper.html 8,000
 #2 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/3245/JessicaAndTrevor'sGeologicalTimeline.html 6,500
 #3 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/1898/Daphne,SarahPaulinatimeline.html 5,500
 #4 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2744/Sarah'sStarfishReport.html 5,500
 #5 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/1837/DavidLuoTimeline.html 4,500
 #6 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2760/RolandOrtega'sNileCrocodileReport.html 3,500
 #7 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2771/AveryHorne'sIvoryBilledWoodpeckerreport.html 3,500
 #8 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/4498/SarahandJessica'sTimeline.html 3,500
 #9 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2524/KandaceIrene'sGeologicTimeline.html 3,000
 #10 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/1295/ElephantEvolutionbyTannerMaddox.html 2,500
 #11 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2514/KaitlynNicholas'sGeologicalTimeline.html 2,500
 #12 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2718/DaiseeGonzalezAfricanLion.html 2,500
 #13 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2773/KellyVerakisBlueMarlinResearchProject.html 2,500
 #14 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/3331/KateandJacob'stimeline.html 2,000
 #15 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2721/AnthonyRondonRingTailedLemur.html 1,600
 #16 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2736/JulietteCooleyJaguar.html 1,600
 #17 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/3336/ShannonandLexi'sTimeline.html 1,600
 #18 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2133/NaturePhotographerbyTracyTran.html 1,300
 #19 http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2755/JessicaKhalili'sOtterResearchReport.html 1,300
 #20 http://www.gambassa.com/public/StepDetail/1888/5546/Eventtimelines.html 1,000
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Jack's Peer Edit (Kris)

Created By: Kristopher Hernandez
The fascinating control center of the body, the mysterious 2.75 Lb organ that keeps on amazing us,the brain[Noah william 20013{1}].This article will describe the things you might not have known about your brain, i will also talk about the parts of your brain.There are many parts of the brain from the frontal lobe to the brain stem[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D{7}].Shrinking down to microscopic size the brain is composed of 100 billion of cells and the cells make neurons. Like electrical wiring neurons are scaterd across and in the brain[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D 2013{6}]. Not forgetting fun facts like memory and how its measured[[Dave Touretzky and Christopher Cherniak{1}]. The different individual parts of the brain controll there own set of emotions,actions and common sense. Last but not least what can happen to the brain when it gets injured, like simple white matter damage can cause less hours of sleep and even cause a comma[BM Evans 2013{1}].From fun facts to parts of the brain and types of injuries.

Many people think of the brain and the mind as the same thing but in reality they are very different, the brain is a physical organ and the mind is attached to your soul like your subconscious[Joseph Conrad 2004{1}]. Discussing the brain there are four main parts[,] the brain stem,cerebrum,cerebellum and the diencephalons[Joseph Conrad 2004{3}]. Back to the mind, the mind is like a psychic version of the brain in its own way. The mind is part of the human soul and influences your brain and actions again like subconscious[Joseph Conrad 2004 {2}]. Being done with the mind i will focus on the more important [part of the] brain.

The brain consists of many functions, first of is the things people do without realizing it like breathing,blinking ,digesting foods,heart rate and so much more[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{1}].The brain is made up of 100 billion nerve cells, the nerve cells make up nerves and the nerve sends out electrical signals to you brain telling you what the body feels[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{2}].The neurons that carry feelings are involved with the nervous system is the brain and the spinal chord[Noah william 2013{2}].Neurons are made up of axons witch is the longest part of the neuron,the cell body is the head of the neuron and has all the components of a normal cell, the neuron will fail and die if the cell body dies.[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{3}].Last but not least are the nerve endings that look like roots to a tree, they are dendrites. Dendrites are located at the end of cell bodies and at the end of axons[Craig C. Freudenrich,Ph.d 2013{3}].

The brain is only about 2.75 the command center of the body, the coloration of the brain is a light pink.The brains armor or skull is made up of 28 bones, 8 of witch are interlocking plates that make up the cranium[Noah william 2013{1,3}].That much is obvious but the are many habits your brain and mind has that you may not notice.Like a computer the brain has three types of memory one long term, long term memory is like a very large hard drive. Short term memory[,] this memory type is like a small RAM that can hold up to nine items 7 average. Finally there is sensory memory[,] this is the memory that you use too recognize things you have seen before[Dave Touretzky and Christopher Cherniak{1}].Another thing you brain is capable of is that the access of long term memory can't be accessed during sleep. When waking up from sleep you might not remember your dreams because the long term memory bank is closed, if your lucky[,] some dreams or parts of dreams are stored into the short term memory[Dave Touretzky and Christopher Cherniak{5}].

The first hominidae intelligence existed about 5 million years ago, hominidae means the ancestor of a modern day man[Jean-Pierre Changeux and Jean Chavaillon 1996{1}]. During this time the weight of the brain was different in many cultures and races even animals brains were weighted and scaled, but the weight of the brain does not measure how much intelligence someone has[Jean-Pierre Changeux and Jean Chavaillon 1996{2,3}].Going back to brain activities or in-activities while you are sleeping injuries can be a big problem. Lower levels of damage to the white mater, cerebral cortex can make it impossible to access the short term memory or RAM(RAM is like the small disc drive in a computer) in the brain when sleeping[BM evans 2013{2}].A high level of damage can be critical to the lower mid-brain,by forgetting how to breath muscle spasms rapid eye movement and finally forgetting how to breath. In brain stem failure you could possibly become a vegetable where there is no state of sleeping or waking[BM evans{8}].

There are different parts of the brain one of witch is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the biggest part of the brain this part of the brain is also known as the cortex{Anne Kinse 2000{4}].There are many parts that make up the cortex or the cerebrum the parts are the frontal lobe,temporal lobe,occipital lobe and the parietal lobe. Each of these lobe has a different function for example the frontal lobe deals with movement problem solving and the etiquette of life. Next is the temporal lobe,this lobe controls vision, recognition,stimuli dealing with sound for example remembering sounds,speech and memory.The occipital lobe makes vision work. Last but not least is the parietal lobe recognition coordinating the body and visual stimuli[Anne Kinse 2000{5}].There are more parts to the brain besides the cerebrum there are the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Hypothalamus is the pat of the brain that lies right above the brain stem.The hypothalamus is like are conscious telling us what we want like food and sex,it also warns us when there is danger around.[Noah william 2013{8}].The pituitary gland produces different hormones depending what gender you are,then the hormone circulate within the body[Noah william 20013{9}].

Another part or section of the brain is the brain stem this is located underneath the brain. The brain stem tells us what to do like when to breath ,how to regulate the blood pressure in the body,heart beat or pulse and any other basic functions of life.Many people say this is the most basic form of the brain because when looking into other animals or reptiles their entire brain is just the brain stem.[Anne Kinse 2000{10}].There are two sides to the brain the left and the right hemispheres, many would think the both sides are the same but study supports that is wrong.The right hemisphere is for art and creativeness while the left hemisphere is all about logic reason and book smarts,Even though there are two halve of the brain there is one part that is no split by the equator, this is the corpus callosum, this art of the brain is just a bunch of axons connecting the to hemispheres together.[Anne Kinse 2000{7}]

Like there is a left and right brain there is also a upper middle and a lower brain,the lover brain consists of the brain stem,diencephalon,cerrebelum also the the cortex. Each of thees parts have a very different an specific function to them for without these functions we would not be able to live, or we would have to remember to breath pump our heart and much more[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{12}].Onto the medulla or my teacher favorite cave man word, the medulla contains nuclei like every other part of the brain. The medulla also helps us with functions needed to live it also sends information regarding what sensory organs receive[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{13}].

The middle brain still like other parts and sections of the brain contains nuclei for movement. The parts to the middle brain consist of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum also the basal ganglia.Nuclei are used for in the middle brain to link motor skills together so people are not clumsy.Eye movement and auditory functions are also under the control of the middle brain. Another part of the middle brain is called the substantia nigra,this involves basic movement when this is damaged or dysfunctional its like having the effects of Parkinson's disease[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{13}].

Pons. What are they, pons are the link that carry information between the cerebrum and the cortex. Pons are little things but they are a big deal[,] it allows us to enjoy our food by tasting it,let us recharge to tackle tomorrows work letting us sleep and carry on with our day without dying by making breathing possible.The list of brain parts goes on so here is the thalamus, this part of the brain tells it when what goes where. For example say you step on a Lego your brains says ouch that hurt my foot. It does this by using the spinal cord as an extension of the brain stem, like a buss stop. The person uses the buss to get to its respective place in the city. Our body being the city and the feeling being the person[Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.{13}].

There are a lot of sections and parts of the brain there is one main part that are important and you should try to remember for later reference, the cerebrum witch is the biggest out of one part and is located in the front of the brain.The cerebrum operates the memory bank the motion system and thoughts that you think about[Noah william 2013{4,5}].The outside of the cerebrum is know as the cortex, the cortex is mainly composed of grey matter. Grey matter is in simplicity cell bodies and neurons. The cerebrum is basically the work center or office of the body, this means the cerebrum is where a lot of work process get done. The cerebrum is like that shirt you threw in someplace and forgot it, but when you find it its wrinkled beyond belief that is the cerebrum. That crumpled wrinkled-ness gives it extra surface area to work with[Noah william 2013{6}].Unlike the cortex that is made up of grey matter the cerebrum inside it is made up of white matter.White matter is only composed of nerve fibers.Far deep in the middle of you brain is the border between your left and your right brain, keeping the other side in touch of whats happening on the other side. without this part of the brain life without this part of your brain would be absolutly chaoticx[Noah william 2013{6}].

The wonders of the brain is as infinite as space as there is so much more to learn about the brain. Learning that you can never judge a brain by its weight. So i bid my farewell hoping you grained knowledge of what you did not know about the brain,and drank you fill of information from the cup of knowledge from this 2.75 pound organ. Hopefully what you read was not stored in your small ram drive and will be remembered for some thing you might need to remember this for. 
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Anonymous 2012c

Created By: Maddy Kim

Action Video Games and Dyslexia

Can playing Action Video Games (AVG) help to remediate dyslexia and improve reading and attentional skills?

[1] Leading experts in the UK think this is very unlikely but these are exactly the claims made last week in an Italian Study published in the journal Current Biology .

[2] Dyslexia Action's head of research Dr John Rack said: “It would be great if the problems of dyslexia would go away simply by playing the right sort of video games, but this is highly unlikely and the recent Italian Study simply doesn't make the case that it can be done. I am worried if a story like this is picked up and raises false hopes or, worse, serves to undermine the hard work being done using less glamorous methods, I can imagine children in schools and homes across the UK asking why they have to do this reading exercise if it works just as well to play video games. Make no mistake, it doesn't work just as well".

And it's not just Dyslexia Action who think this.

[3] Professor or Developmental Neuropsychology at Oxford University, Dorothy Bishop writes: “It's a classic example of a paper that is on the one hand highly newsworthy, but on the other, methodologically weak. I’m not usually a betting person, but I’d be prepared to put money on the main effect failing to replicate if the study were repeated with improved methodology”.

[4] Professor Charles Hulme from the Psychology Department at University College London says: “Based on my reading I would be hesitant to conclude there is any real effect here. The sample sizes are tiny, and the statistics are inappropriate”.

[5] Dr Rack explains further: "The claimed benefit from the AVGs was obtained in a group of only 10 children with dyslexia and the only benefit to their reading seems to be that they got faster, whilst maintaining the same levels of accuracy. In a follow-up, 6 of these children were tested again and the fact that there was not a significant drop in scores for this group of 6 is taken as evidence that the improvements were sustained. I am really quite shocked that any interpretation is given to this 'null finding' - failure to find a difference with such small numbers is in no way conclusive. Short-term benefit in terms of speed for those who played the Action Games really is no basis to suggest we think again about approaches to remediation, especially since we don’t yet know if that result would stand up in a study using larger groups.

We need to be open to the new possibilities that technology brings, and to new ideas that will help improve on the methods that we already know are effective. But we have to be wary of claims where the enthusiasm for the technologies runs ahead of the data".
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Anonymous 2013b

Created By: Maddy Kim

Helping Children with Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a type of learning disability. Before diagnosis, many children with dyslexia are poorly understood. Since dyslexia has nothing to do with a person's intelligence, parents of children with dyslexia are often perplexed when their child does poorly in school or struggles to read a simple book. Is the child lazy? Inattentive? Not as smart as he or she seems?

If your child has dyslexia, you have likely asked yourself these questions as you watched your child struggle to keep up with classmates. You may have also observed your child's frustration as his or her friends gain skills that are difficult for children with dyslexia to master. The good news is that today we know more than ever before about the condition and about ways to help children with dyslexia. You can make sure your child gets the help that's needed.

What Is Dyslexia?

[1] About 5% to 10% of all school children in the U.S. have learning disabilities. Dyslexia is the most common type. It leads to problems with reading and comprehension of written language. Since reading is a key element in learning, children with dyslexia can have trouble mastering basic skills and succeeding in school.

[2] Children with dyslexia have problems processing the information they see when looking at a word. Often a dyslexic child will have trouble connecting the sound made by a specific letter or deciphering the sounds of all the letters together that form a word. Given these challenges, children with dyslexia often also have trouble with writing, spelling, speaking, and math.

Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia in Children

[3] Children with dyslexia can have mild to severe impairment. Signs of the condition vary widely from person to person. Young children with dyslexia may have the following signs and symptoms:

A late talker
Pronunciation problems
Difficulty rhyming words
Impaired ability to learn basics such as the alphabet, colors, and numbers
Problems with handwriting and other fine motor skills
Confusing letters such as "b" and "d" or the orders of letters within words
Trouble learning the connection between letters and their sounds
An estimated 25% of people with dyslexia also show signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

[4] In older children or adults with dyslexia, these other signs may appear:

Trouble with reading, writing, and spelling
Ongoing trouble with schoolwork
Difficulty learning a foreign language
Poor handwriting
Difficulty remembering numbers
Trouble following a sequence of directions and telling left from right

 Causes of Dyslexia

[5] Researchers have found that dyslexia is caused by a difference in the way the dyslexic brain processes information. Experts do not know precisely what causes dyslexia, but several recent studies now indicate that genetics plays a major role. If you or your partner has dyslexia, you are more likely to have children with dyslexia. Over the next few decades, we are likely to learn much more about dyslexia and how to treat it.

Complications of Dyslexia

[6] Children with dyslexia are at serious risk of developing emotional problems -- not because of the condition itself, but because of the daily frustration and sense of failure they meet in the school environment. One study of children with dyslexia found that most of the children observed were well adjusted in preschool. But they began to develop emotional problems during their early years in school, when their reading issues began to surface.

If children with dyslexia are not identified, they are likely to begin to fail in school, and may act out, or stop trying altogether. Teachers and parents may assume that these children are simply not trying and even punish them. The child may begin to internalize the message that he or she is stupid or bad. This can become a fixed part of his or her identity, undermining self-confidence. It is not surprising, then, that children with dyslexia are at higher risk for behavior problems and depression.

Fortunately, dyslexia is now far more likely to be identified than it was in the past, when the condition was not well understood. Today, if a child has trouble reading in the early grades, parents and teachers are likely to detect the problem and provide help for the child. There are many resources now available to children with dyslexia and other learning disabilities.

How to Help Children with Dyslexia

[7] There is no cure for dyslexia. But early intervention can give children with dyslexia the encouragement and tools they need to manage in school and compensate for their disability. [8] If you suspect that your child has dyslexia or another learning disability, talk with your pediatrician as soon as possible. Your doctor can rule out any physical issues -- such as vision problems -- in your child. They may then refer you to a learning specialist, educational psychologist, or speech therapist. The first step will be to have your child evaluated so you can take the appropriate steps at school and at home.

[8] Most children with dyslexia can learn to read, and many can remain in a regular classroom, but they will need help to do so. Usually, learning specialists use a variety of techniques to work with children with dyslexia on an ongoing basis. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, children with dyslexia are allowed special accommodations in the classroom, such as additional time for tests and other types of support.
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Bailey 2013

Created By: Maddy Kim

Students with Dyslexia and Bullying

[1] Children with dyslexia are at an increased risk of being bullied and teased. [Bender and Walls, 1994]. Unfortunately, because bullying is usually done when adults aren't around, teachers are often unaware that a child is being bullied. Many times, even when asked directly, a child will tell a teacher "no" out of fear of being bullied even more or because he doesn't think the teacher will believe him. Students go through their school days in isolation and fear and their self-esteem, emotional well-being, academics and sometimes their physical health all suffer.

Children of all ages, from the very young through college, deserve a safe environment where they can learn. Unfortunately, children that are different, those that have physical limitations, learning disabilities or different beliefs are often the target of bullying. Teachers can and do play a major role in making their classroom safe and secure for all their students.

A bully is someone who uses their power (stronger, smarter, more popular) to hurt another person. This can be physically, emotionally or by causing someone public embarrassment. When bullying takes place at school it is normally at recess, in the hallway or bathroom or other places where there are only a limited amount of supervision. Although not always true, boys tend to use physical force more often and girls use hurtful gossip or social exclusion.

[2] Some bullying behaviors include:

Repeatedly pushing, shoving, punching, hitting or being physically abusive toward another person
Spreading rumors (can be through conversation, notes, emails, texting, instant-messaging, social networking sites)
Teasing or name calling
Excluding others from activities or purposely ignoring others
In older children, bullying can also include making sexual advances, grabbing, touching, using vulgar language or other intimidating, unwanted actions.

The first step toward making your classroom bully-free is to be aware of what is going on:

Stop by the playground and observe students interacting with one another. Watch for direct, inappropriate behavior such pushing or shoving as well as teasing and name-calling. Keep your eye out for any students standing by themselves or being excluded from playing with other children. One incident, although wrong, does not constitute bullying, but should be addressed immediately to prevent further harassment.

Enlist the help of other teachers. Because you are looking for patterns of behavior, there is a good chance you will not immediately notice anything amiss. Talk with other school personnel who see your students on a regular basis. This could be the physical education teacher, the art teacher, classroom aides, lunchroom aides. Ask them to let you know if they see any signs of bullying and ask for names of students who might be bullying and those that might be victims. Notice if the same name comes up several times.

Discuss bullying with the class. Explain what bullying is and why you won't tolerate it in your classroom. Doing this in the beginning of the year as well as several times throughout the year will help reinforce your no-bully policy. Talk to students about what they should do if they see someone being bullied or if they are being bullied. List several adults in the building students can feel safe approaching about being bullied. Let your class know you will listen if they come to you.

Ask students to use a blank piece of paper and write down the number of times they have been bullied in the past year. They should not write down their name or the name of the person doing the bullying. Have the students fold the paper in half and walk around the classroom to collect each one. The responses will give you an idea of how rampant bullying is in your classroom and your school.

Have students list appropriate, respectful behaviors. Use this list to create a poster you can hang in the room and remind your students that this is the type of behavior you expect to see at all times.

Let students know that if you see bullying or if you are told about bullying, you will intervene, even if that person did not mean to hurt the other person. Explain what the consequences for bullying will be, such as an immediate apology, a time out, losing a privilege, going to the principal's office, calling parents. Explain that consequences will be more severe if they are caught bullying again.

Remember, when talking with a child about bullying, do so in private. Disciplining a child in public is humiliating.

Make sure you are approachable and all students feel they can come to you if they witness bullying or feel they are being bullied.
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