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Acs 2013

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What Is Cancer?

[1] Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. These growths are called tumors. Tumors can  interfere with the digestive, nervous, and circulatory systems, and they can release hormones that alter body function. Cancer is caused by both external factors (tobacco, infectious organisms, chemicals, and radiation) and internal factors (inherited mutations, hormones, immune conditions, and mutations that occur from metabolism). These causal factors may act together or in sequence to initiate or promote the development of cancer. [2If the spread is not controlled, it can result in death. Ten or more years often pass between exposure to external factors and detectable cancer. Cancer is treated with surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy, and targeted therapy.

Can Cancer Be Prevented?

A substantial proportion of cancers could be prevented. All cancers caused by cigarette smoking and heavy use of alcohol could be prevented completely. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2013 about 174,100 cancer deaths will be caused by tobacco use. The World Cancer Research Fund estimates that about one-quarter to one-third of the new cancer cases expected to occur in the US in 2013 will be related to overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition, and thus could also be prevented. Certain cancers are related to infectious agents, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); many of these cancers could be prevented through behavioral changes, vaccines, or antibiotics. Many of the more than 2 million skin cancers that are diagnosed annually could be prevented by protecting skin from excessive sun exposure and avoiding indoor tanning. In addition to preventing cancer through the avoidance of risk factors, regular screening tests that allow the detection and removal of precancerous growths can prevent cancers of the cervix, colon, and rectum.

Early detection of cancer, which usually results in less extensive treatment and better outcomes, can also be achieved through screening for some cancers. Screening is known to reduce mortality for cancers of the breast, colon, rectum, and cervix. A heightened awareness of changes in the breast or skin may also result in detection of these tumors at earlier stages. For complete cancer screening guidelines, please see page 60.

Who Is at Risk of Developing Cancer?

Anyone can develop cancer. Since the risk of being diagnosed with cancer increases with age, most cases occur in adults who are middle aged or older. About 77% of all cancers are diagnosed in persons 55 years of age and older. Cancer researchers use the word “risk” in different ways, most commonly expressing risk as lifetime risk or relative risk.

Lifetime risk refers to the probability that an individual will develop or die from cancer over the course of a lifetime. In the US, men have slightly less than a 1 in 2 lifetime risk of developing cancer; for women, the risk is a little more than 1 in 3. However, it is important to note that these estimates are based on the average experience of the general population and may over- or underestimate individual risk because of differences in exposure (e.g. smoking), and/or genetic susceptibility.

Relative risk is a measure of the strength of the relationship between a risk factor and cancer. It compares the risk of developing cancer in persons with a certain exposure or trait to the risk in persons who do not have this characteristic. For example, male smokers are about 23 times more likely to develop lung cancer than nonsmokers, so their relative risk is 23. Most relative risks are not this large. For example, women who have a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with a history of breast cancer are about two times more likely to develop breast cancer than women who do not have this family history. All cancers involve the malfunction of genes that control cell growth and division. About 5% of all cancers are strongly hereditary, in that an inherited genetic alteration confers a very high risk of developing one or more specific types of cancer. However, most cancers do not result from inherited genes but from damage to genes occurring during one’s lifetime. Genetic damage may result from internal factors, such as hormones or the metabolism of nutrients within cells, or external factors, such as tobacco, or excessive exposure to chemicals, sunlight, or ionizing radiation.

How Many People Alive Today Have Ever Had Cancer?

The National Cancer Institute estimates that approximately 13.7 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2012. Some of these individuals were cancer free, while others still had evidence of cancer and may have been undergoing treatment.

How Many New Cases Are Expected to Occur This Year?

[3] About 1,660,290 new cancer cases are expected to be diagnosed in 2013. This estimate does not include carcinoma in situ (non-invasive cancer) of any site except urinary bladder, and does not include basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers, which are not required to be reported to cancer registries.

How Many People Are Expected to Die of Cancer This Year?

[4] In 2013, about 580,350 Americans are expected to die of cancer, almost 1,600 people per day. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US, exceeded only by heart disease, accounting for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths.

Cancer Facts & Figures 2013

What Percentage of People Survive Cancer?

The 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers diagnosed between 2002 and 2008 is 68%, up from 49% in 1975-1977 (see page 18). The improvement in survival ref lects both progress in diagnosing certain cancers at an earlier stage and improvements in treatment. Survival statistics vary greatly by cancer type and stage at diagnosis. Relative survival compares survival among cancer patients to that of people not diagnosed with cancer who are of the same age, race, and sex. It represents the percentage of cancer patients who are alive after some designated time period (usually 5 years) relative to persons without cancer. It does not distinguish between patients who have been cured and those who have relapsed or are still in treatment. While 5-year relative survival is useful in monitoring progress in the early detection and treatment of cancer, it does not represent the proportion of people who are cured permanently, since cancer deaths can occur beyond 5 years after diagnosis. Although relative survival for specific cancer types provides some indication about the average survival experience of cancer patients in a given population, it may or may not predict individual prognosis and should be interpreted with caution. First, 5-year relative survival rates for the most recent time period are based on patients who were diagnosed from 2002 to 2008 and thus, do not reflect the most recent advances in detection and treatment. Second, factors that influence survival, such as treatment protocols, other illnesses, and biological and behavioral differences of individual cancers or people, cannot be taken into account in the estimation of relative survival rates. For more information about survival rates, see Sources of Statistics on page 58.

How Is Cancer Staged?

Staging describes the extent or spread of cancer at the time of diagnosis. Proper staging is essential in determining the choice of therapy and in assessing prognosis. A cancer’s stage is based on the size or extent of the primary (main) tumor and whether it has spread to other areas of the body. A number of different staging systems are used to classify tumors. A system of summary staging (in situ, local, regional, and distant) is used for descriptive and statistical analysis of tumor registry data. If cancer cells are present only in the layer of cells where they developed and have not spread, the stage is in situ. If cancer cells have penetrated beyond the original layer of tissue, the cancer is invasive and categorized as local, regional, or distant stage based on the extent of spread.

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