Project:
Report Project

Mikayla Lopez Tiger
Project Name : Mikayla Lopez Tiger
Description :
Name Status Sequence View
Report End 1 View
Review End 2 View

Project Views


What is the title of your report?
The Siberian Tiger
Report:
Introduction 

When you think of a tiger you normally think of a strong, powerful and fierce creature in nature and that is how the tiger got its name. Tiger comes from the Latin word "tigris" which means strong and fierce. In nature the tiger dominates over most other species of strong animals. Even though tigers are so fierce, they are endangered and may become extinct if we do keep taking away and ruining their land. For example, the Siberian tiger also know as the Amur tiger, being the largest of the eight subspecies of tigers has very little left in the world and if we do keep up all this building and construction they will no doubt go extinct. "The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which keeps a "Red List" of species in danger worldwide, lists the Amur tiger as endangered" (anonymous 2008, 10). The Siberian tiger has reddish orange fur and white fur on the stomach area. They also "have a yellowish eye color" (anonymous 2007, 8). Siberian tigers are found mostly in forests of Russia. 

Findings

The tiger was named after the Latin word "tigris" because it is so fierce and strong. The classification for the Siberian tiger is almost the same as any other animal, but of course has its differences. In the kingdom section it falls under Animalia. In phylum it is in Chordata, the class is in Mammalia, the order is the Carnivora. In the family it is in Felidae. What is very interesting about the Siberian tiger is that it "is one of the four species in the genus Panthera" (Titze 2010, 1). The Species is in Panthera tigris, and lastly the subspecies is Panthera tigris altaica. The Siberian tiger and all other cats that live today are told to have evolved from a small mammal about the size of a squirrel, and ate insects. This animal was called a Miacid. Then the line of cats slowly began and started with small cat with a long body and short legs known as a Proailurus.

"Amur tigers are mainly found in Southeastern Russia, but some are known to exist in China and North Korea. Their primary habitat is the birch forests of Russia" (anonymous 2008, 4). Siberian tigers do prefer forests better that open areas without much trees because they need to stay hidden in order to hunt and stay away from other predators.  "Nearly all remaining individuals of Amur tigers survive in Russia" (Miquelle 2007, 1) because of the human disturbance that goes on in other environments. For example when people build roads or build on animal territory the animals have no choice but to try and live somewhere else and when the land is destroyed they just die off. "The majority of Amur tiger range—cannot sustain stable populations with the increasing threat of human access to tiger habitat" (Kerley 2002, 2). 

These Siberian Tigers have red orange fur with black stripes and also have a white stomach underneath. They have four long and extremely strong legs. Because, of all the strength in their legs, these tigers can run up to about 50 miles per hour. Even though they are only 10 miles per hour slower than cheetahs they are still very fast.The Siberian tiger can grow at most up to about 13 feet in length which make it the ultimately largest cat on earth. That is more than twice as big as the average human being. "The male Siberian tigers are much heavier than the female tigers and usually weigh from 419 - 675 lb (190 - 306 kg)" (anonymous 2007, 3). "Female Siberian tigers tend to stay around 221 - 368 lb (101 - 168 kg)" (anonymous 2007, 4).

Siberian tigers and all tigers in general are "usually fiercely territorial and have and mark their large home ranges" (anonymous 2012, 4). Like almost all animals they are very protective, even humans are very protective of their homes, environments and almost all things that belong to them. Even when animals will have to protect themselves and their lives, it is in their nature to be aggressive and do what they can to prevent themselves from getting hurt.  But, no matter how much aggressiveness they have, their patience is so amazing, especially while waiting to catch their prey.  Tigers are "mostly nocturnal (more active at night) and are ambush predators that rely on the camouflage their stripes provide" (anonymous 2012, 3). Siberian tigers eat a variety of animals, if they are desperate they will eat almost anything they can find whether it has been already eaten from or fresh. Their diet consists of mostly deer and antelope. Since deer and antelope may not always be around, the Siberian tiger will try to hunt and eat any other large animal they prefer. They "are also known to hunt sloth, bears, dogs, leopards, crocodiles and pythons, as well as monkeys and hares" (anonymous 2012, 1).

The Siberian tiger moves rather quietly. Considering how big it is it moves very soundlessly and swift. They do this to make sure their prey does not hear them or see them. This makes sense because if it wanted to be the top carnivore of its environment it would need to have the camouflage, aggressiveness, speed, etc. "Siberian tigers are great jumpers and swimmers" (anonymous 2007, 7).  They also have incredible climbing skills which is an advantage if they wanted to go after bears or even hideout in the trees from some other predator that may possibly harm them. "Considered a fierce predator, this tiger’s speed, strength and agility allow it to easily catch and take down prey, including other large predators such as black bears" (anonymous 2008, 3).

Tigers life cycles are mostly like any other animals life cycle. They are born, they eat, they learn, they hunt, they play around, make a family and they eventually die. "Tigers give birth in all but 3 months of the year, with a peak in late summer" (Kerley 2003, 1). The Siberian tiger's reproduction cycle is like the normal mammal on this earth. It becomes pregnant with baby tigers, also known as cubs and then they are born and taken care of by their mothers and fathers. For about three months the female Siberian tiger carries the cubs. "Female Siberian Tigers have at usually 2-4 cubs, though they can have up to 6 cubs" and when they are born "they weigh about 2-3 pounds" (anonymous 2007, 10). Like all cats when the cubs are born their eyes are closed shut, therefore making them blind and unaware of their surroundings. Then when two weeks pass by the cubs eyes can finally open and they can see and explore the world that they are living in. For about two to three years their mother looks after the cubs, takes care of them, teaches them to survive in the wild and then teaches them to hunt and feed themselves. After those two to three years have passed, the cubs are ready to go off and take care of themselves. Both the mother and the cub knows that, so the mother leaves them to live their own lives. Yes, of course that is very normal since a child will have to leave his or her 
mother someday, even humans too.                                                            

                                                                                                           

Believe it or not the Siberian tiger does not really have any unique trait like hibernation. But in fact what is unique and different about the Siberian tiger is that "when A tiger roars it can be heard over a mile away" (anonymous 2007,
12). It also uses it fur coat that is more of an orange color with stripes that help them camouflage in order for other predators and their prey not to see them. What is very interesting about the Siberian tiger is that its fur coat can change colors in the different seasons. In the winter and fall their coat turns to a dark orange and in the summer and spring the coat changes to a yellowish-orange depending on how much sun is in the area and how cold or hot it is.

In fact, Siberian tigers are known to be endangered and that is because of human disturbance and construction that takes away their land from them and most of the time leaves them with no other environment to turn to. Some of the main types of death that cause the Siberian tiger to be endangered are "1) tiger–human conflict (legally killed because it was a threat to human life or livelihood); (2) poached (illegally killed); (3) suspected poached (for radio-collared animals only, see below); (4) road-kill (animal hit by a vehicle); (5) trapped (animals incidentally captured in legal traps set for furbearers); (6) natural death (cause of death not directly related to human actions); (7) unknown" (Goodrich 2008, 2). "The Amur or Siberian tiger Panthera tigris altaica forms a relatively small and disjunct population of less than 600 individuals in the Russian Far East" (Carroll 2006, 1). It may seem like a lot, but when its is really thought about and compared to the number of other animal species, and especially humans, there are very little Siberian tigers left in the world. Already there are conservation plans for the Siberian tiger species to help try to keep them around and away from unprotected areas. "In 1992, we began a research program on the ecology of endangered Amur (or Siberian) tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) to develop a database from which conservation plans could be developed" (Press 2001, 1). Some time ago in the Russian far east, where the Siberian tigers normally live, a disease spread around called the Morbillivirus infection, causing some animal species populations to die and be left with only a few surviving animals. Some Siberian tigers have been infected with this disease and it is causing most of them to die. "Morbillivirus infections have been reported in a variety of wild and domestic terrestrial and marine mammals worldwide" (Quigley 2010, 1).

Studies have been made about the Siberian tiger such as trying to save the species by studying about their habitats, eating habits, reproductive cycles and much more. There is a conservation plan to try and maintain the Siberian tiger species and it is call the Siberian tiger project. "The goal of the Siberian Tiger Project is to collect the best possible scientific information on tiger ecology for use in conservation plans" (anonymous 2011, 1). There are many scientists that research Siberian tigers and try to find unique traits that they have, but because they are so secretive and hard to find, there are not many things they can do.

There are so many legends and myths about the Siberian tiger that have been passed down over the years. All these stories about this particular animal are all completely different, depending on the different cultures they come from. One of the stories explains how the Siberian tiger was a symbol told to be unlimited power. If anyone was to somehow find this one animal, they would be able to have the unlimited power to either destroy evil and bad things or create it.   Basically, anyone who had this power would be able to do anything they wished whether it was good, bad, or for their own well being.

Conclusion
Overall, the Siberian tiger is a very interesting, beautiful, and  an incredible creature. In my opinion this large cat that is almost going extinct is one of the most amazing cats in the world that I have ever learned about. And while conservation plans and further studies are still going on, everyday regular people are learning more and more of the Siberian tiger. I felt like this one secretive, strong and fierce animal that has been studied for years provides a wake up call for people in the world that animals are soon becoming extinct because of the actions we choose to do. If we do end up not changing and not trying to help maintain the species, animals (not just tigers) all over will soon disappear forever.








Bibliography:
Anonymous. "Amur Tiger." Ecomii. 2008. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.ecomii.com/jeff-corwin/animals/amur-tiger>.
Anonymous. "Basic Facts About Tigers." Tiger. 2012. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.defenders.org/tiger/basic-facts>.
Anonymous. "Siberian Tiger Project." Home. 2011. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.wcsrussia.org/en-us/projects/siberiantigerproject.aspx>.
Anonymous. "Ultimate Guide to the Largest Cats on Earth." 2007. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.alexandgregory.com/siberian_tigers.html>.
Carroll, Carlos. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01237.x/full>.
Goodrich, J. M. - Goodrich. 2008. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00458.x/full>.
Kerley, Linda L. "Effects of Roads and Human Disturbance on Amur Tigers." - Kerley. 2002. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.99290.x/abstract>.
Kerley, Linda L. "REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF WILD FEMALE AMUR (SIBERIAN) TIGERS." 2003. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.asmjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1644/1545-1542%282003%29084%3C0288%3ARPOWFA%3E2.0.CO%3B2?journalCode=mamm>.
Miquelle, Dale. "Amur Tiger Census." 2007. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.mendeley.com/research/2005-amur-tiger-census/>.
Press, Allen. "Capture and Chemical Anesthesia of Amur (Siberian) Tigers." JSTOR. 2001. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3784177?uid=3739560>.
Quigley, Kathy S. "Journal of Wildlife Diseases." Morbillivirus Infection in a Wild Siberian Tiger in the Russian Far East. 2010. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://www.jwildlifedis.org/content/46/4/1252.abstract?maxtoshow=>.
Titze, Ingo R. "The Journal of Experimental Biology." Vocal Power and Pressure–flow Relationships in Excised Tiger Larynges. 2010. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <http://jeb.biologists.org/content/213/22/3866.full?maxtoshow=>.
Appendix:

Please provide constructive feedback/notes.
Science Project Writeup Rubric & Checklist

Spring Research Paper Checklist
and Rubric for Grading

Section
Description of research paper items and resulting points.
% of Grade
% Received
Title Page
-Title contains the Common Name of chosen species

2/2
100
Introduction

-Your topic is introduced in an interesting way to catch interest of the reader
-You preview the main points of the paper
-Accomplished in 1 paragraph
* (Parenthetical references are not required in this section if the points are going to be made again in the "Findings" section. If you use an attention grabbing introductory point that is not going to be used again, then it needs a parenthetical reference.)

6/8
 75
Findings
0%
65%
75%
85%
100%
Not Present
Information content is well short of covering the topic
Information content is not adequate to cover the topic
Information content is almost adequate to cover the topic
Content is adequate to cover the topic of "What its name means, its classification, and what organisms it is related to and evolved from"
Not Present
"
"
"
Content is adequate to cover the topic of "Where on Earth it is found (range), habitat preference, a map of its range is included, and a image (still or video) of the species in its habitat is included"
Not Present
"
"
"
Content is adequate to cover the topic of "Physical description of your species and a close up picture "
Not Present
"
"
"
Content is adequate to cover the topic of "Your species' structural, behavioral, and physiological adaptations"
Not Present
"
"
"
Content is adequate to cover the topic of "This species' survival status (keystone, threatened, endangered, foundation, indicator, and/or invasive "
Not Present
"
"
"
Content is adequate to cover the topic of "current research that has been done on this species by scientists "
Not Present
"
"
"
Content is adequate to cover the topic of "Something Special about this species that is your personal connection, legend, or interesting story"

44/50

88%
Findings Content Adjustment (from the entire paper's gade)
100% from findings content grade
-35% from findings content grade
-25% from findings content grade
-15% from findings content grade
-0% from findings content grade
Parenthetical references are not used (This results in a "0" for your paper)
Minimal information in this section is tied to the literature cited with parenthetical references
Some information in this section is clearly tied to the literaterature cited with parenthetical references.
Most information in this section is clearly tied to the literaterature cited with parenthetical references.
All information in this section is clearly tied to the literaterature cited with parenthetical references.
Parenthetical references are not used as requested (This results in a "0" for your paper) Few Some Most All parenthetical references have (Author's Last Name, Year of Publication with a link to the information that jumps the reader to the web document anchor #)
Your paper is plagiarized (This results in a "0" for your paper) Very little Some Most All material has been paraphrased in your "voice" and style of writing. Minimal plagiarism is found . "Quotation marks are used for statements that are not paraphrased."
minus _5__ out of 100  
Conclusion
0%
65%
75%
85%
100%
Not Present
Information content is well short of covering the topic
Information content is not adequate to cover the topic
Information content is almost adequate to cover the topic
You summarized your findings to remind the reader of you paper's main points in 1 paragraph
Not Present
Information content is well short of covering the topic
Information content is not adequate to cover the topic
Information content is almost adequate to cover the topic
You make a thoughful statement to bring closure to the paper.
8.75/10
 87.5
Mechanics & Organization
65%
75%
85%
100%
Grammar usage was a problem throughout
Some grammar usage was a problem
Very few grammar errors
No apparent grammar errors
Organization: Sentence structure was choppy and hard to read
Organization: Some sentence structure was a problem
Organization:Very few problems with sentence structure and smoothness of reading
Organization: This writeup read very smoothly because of proper sentence structure and flow of thoughts
Organization: Sources are choppily pieced together in chunks one source at a time Organization: Sources are not very smoothly integrated into a coherent flow Organization: Sources are somewhat integrated into a coherent flow Organization: Sources are smoothly integrated into a coherent flow
Spelling and punctuation was a problem throughout
Some spelling and punctuation was a problem
Very few spelling and punctuation errors

No apparent spelling and punctuation errors

26/30
 85
Literature Cited

-Please list your sources that you used in your "Findings" section. They should be in alphabetical order by the author's last name. See Ex. Res. Paper using CSE.
-8 authored sources. No anonymous sources accepted as "the 8 " (sources must have a human author with a last name). Anonymous sources can be used, but not included in "the 8." In other words, if you used 2 anonymous sources, you would need 10 total.
-contains at least 4 primary resources (scientific journals)
IF YOU HAVE 4 OUT OF 8 REQUIRED AUTHORED SOURCES, THEN YOUR MAX GRADE IS 50%

This section must be included to get credit given above
 
Web Documents

-copies of the sources actually used in your findings in a gambassa.com web document
-URL of linked to the original source at the top of the web document
- text highlighted (one color if it pertains, another color if actually used) if it is used (books need to have bibliography information and pages used; journals sources should include entire article)
-highlighted text needs a numbered anchor (like [1]) in front of it (use hyperlink icon).
-parenthetical references should be linked from the research paper to the web document (see tiny world icon to get "share link" URL address with a "#1" at the end of the link to the number of the anchor in the web document)

This must be included to get credit given above.
     82% 246/300

 

Grade
82 %